???????? ????? ?????????????? µ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??µ???????

????????

 

???? ??????? ???????
????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ???
??????? ?? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ????. ???????? ? ????????
????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????, ???? 7 ??? 10 ???? ?????????? ??
????????, ??? ???? ?? 17% ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????
??????????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????
???? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????
???? ?? ??? ?????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????. ???? ?????
??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???
?????????? ? ??? ?????????. ? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ????. ??? ????? ?????
(???????? 1-3) ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???
???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????????
????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????????????. ???
??????? ????? (???????? 4) ?????????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???? ???? ???
??????? ????????, ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ???
???????? ???? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ?????.

 

 

?????? ?????????
??? ?????

? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???
?????? ??? ???????µ??. ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? µ?????? ????????????,
??? ??? ?? µ????µ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????µ??????? ??????????? µ???, ?????
???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????µ??? ???? ??????? ??????????
µ? ???? (management by projects) (Murphy and Ledwith 2007, Anantamula 2008, Bradshaw 2008). ??????, ?? ???? µ????? ?? ????????? ???
??? ????? ????????? ???????µ?, ?????? ??? ???? ??????????. ?? ????? ????????? ??????µ?????? µ????? ??? ?????:

1.      
??????µ???????? – ???? ?
?????????? ????? ?????????????? µ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??µ??????? ???
?????????µ???? ???????? (??? ?????????µ????? ???????µ???)

2.      
??????? ??????????????? – ???? ?
??????? ????? ?? ????????µ????? ??µ??? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ?????

3.      
??????? ????µ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????????

(??µ???? µ? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????µµ? ???
???????µ??)

4.       ??????????
???µ?????? ??? ??? ?µ??? ??? ?????

5.      
µ? ?????????µ???? ?????? ??? ?????

6.       ??
????? ??? ?? ??µ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????µ????

7.      
??????? ???? ?µ???
?????

8.      
????????? ?????????? ??? ???????

9.       ?????
???????? ????????? (Ivory ??? Alderman 2005)

?? Rozenes et al (2006) ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ?????????
??? ?????

????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????,
??? ????µ???? ??? ???? ??µ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?
??????? ???????µ???? ?????????? ??? ?? µ??? ??? ?µ???? ????? ??? ? ???????
??????? ??? ?????. ??? µ?????? ??? ????µ?????? ??? ???µ?????? ?????µ???? (software industry), ??? ?? µ?????
??? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ? ???????µ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????????. ?
???????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? µ????? ???µ? ??? ??? ???????
???????µ? ??? ?????? ??? ?µ???? ????????.

 

 

??????
????????? ???????????? ??? ????????

? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???
?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????
??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???????
??? ????????????? ???????????. ???
???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? (??????????) ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????.

 

1) ?? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????

???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????????  ? 
???????, ?????  ??? ?????? ??? ??????????-????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ??? 
?? ?????????? ????? ??? ??
?????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???
?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?
???????, ? ??? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????? ???
????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????-??????.

 

? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????
??? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????????
??????????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???
??? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????,
???????? ??????? ???????? ?.?.

?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???????
???? ???????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??????????? ???????
????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??????

??????? ??? ????????, ?? ?????  ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????
??????????????.  ? ????????????? ????,
???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????
????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????????.

2)
?????????? ??????????

????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????
??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???
???????? ????? ?????????. ? ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ?? ?????
?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????

 

 

 

 

 

 

????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????,
??? ????µ???? ??? ???? ??µ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?
??????? ???????µ???? ?????????? ??? ?? µ??? ??? ?µ???? ????? ??? ? ???????
??????? ??? ?????. ??? µ?????? ??? ????µ?????? ??? ???µ?????? ?????µ???? (software industry), ??? ?? µ?????
??? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ? ???????µ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????????. ?
???????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? µ????? ???µ? ??? ??? ???????
???????µ? ??? ?????? ??? ?µ???? ????????.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

????? ????????? ?????

l  ?????????????
??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????

l  ???????
?????? ? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???? ??????

l  ???????
???????????? ???????

l  ????????
???????????

l  ????????????????
?????????? ?????

l  ???????
??????????? ??? ?? ????????

l  ????????
?????????? ???????? (outsourcing)

l  ??
??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????

l  ?
????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? – ???????? ????????????
??????? ??????????: ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ???????
??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???.

 

???????? ??????????
????????? ??? ??? ???? ERP ?? ???? ERP ????????? ??? ?????????
??????? ????????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????- ?????
????????? ???? ??? ??????????????. ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??
????? ??? ??????- ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ?????.
??????? ?? ???? Kronbichler et al. (2009) ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
(???) ??? ??? ???? ERP ????? ?? ????????: 3. ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????,
4. ???????? ?????, 5. ?????????? ??? ???????, 6. ????????????? ???
?????????????? ???????????, 7. ??????????, 8. ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????
?????, 9. ??????????? ??? ??????????, 10.?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????
(Legacy Systems) ??? ?????????, 11. ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ?????????,
12.???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????/????????? ??????????, 13.???????? ???
??????????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, 14.????????? ??? ??????????
??? ??????? ??? ????.

The underestimation of
complexity, cost and/or schedule
Failure to establish
appropriate control over requirements and/or scope
Lack of
communications
Failure to
engage stakeholders
Failure to address culture change issues
Lack of oversight / poor project
management
Poor quality
workmanship
Lack of risk
management
Failure to understand or
address system performance requirements
Poorly planned
/ managed transitions