Designing and developing models of foreign
language teaching and learning can be based on the concept that the practice of
design and development is empirical by nature (Richey, Klein, 2007). It
emphasizes that instructional design process is similar to scientific
problem-solving processes. The researcher develops innovative interventions
(also referred to as Intervention Design and Development) to provide possible
solutions to practical problems (Thomas & Rothman, 1994). Throughout design
and development process designers employ scientific methods to facilitate their
understanding of the design and development process (Richey, Klein, 2007).
There are at least three key areas of research and theory that are applied when
conducting design and development research project: learning theory and
research; instructional and instructional design theory and research; and
communication theory and research (Richey, Klein, 2007; Smith & Regan,
2008). Thus, the Design and Development Research Project covers the wide range
of competencies (knowledge, skills & dispositions) that are required of instructional
designers and are emphasized in State University of Yogyakarta (YSU). It crosses over all phases of the design and
development process and the various education and training settings in which
The primary purpose of meeting is to
provide a culminating opportunity for the YSU students to demonstrate a
complete understanding of the field and ability to apply them in practice. In
addition, Designing and Developing
Models of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning aims to promote students’
knowledge base and creativity in design and development of language teaching
and learning by engaging them in all of the specific design and development
project phases namely analysis; design; development and evaluation. Richey and
Klein (2007) identify three main categories of design and development research:
1. Research on Model;
2. Model Development Research; and
3. Validation of a Model Research.
Research on learning models typically
involves situations in which the design and development process used in a
particular situation is described, analyzed and a final model is evaluated. Learning
model development research originates with the design and development of an
instructional product or program. They demonstrate a range of design and
development principles available to practitioners. The procedures employed
follows instructional systems design (ISD) encompassing front-end analysis
through evaluation (Richey & Klein, 2007). Validation of a Model Research
is the most generalizable form of design and development research. This type of
research highlights either comprehensive models or particular design techniques
When deciding on the category of research
project, the YSU students must consult with their advisors and should also
review the various lines of inquiry within each of these two major types of learning
model design and development research explained more specifically in Richey and
Klein’s book entitled “Designed and Development Research” (2007).
Research and Development
outcomes or products of the language learning model design and development
research may include the following:
a. The instructional Model under the study
b. The report of the study.
The report may be in form
1. results of studying a specific model
2. report of lessons learned from developing
specific models and analyzing conditions which facilitate their use;
3. results of the study of model development
and validation or use;
4. description of new design and development
procedures or models and conditions which facilitate their use.
Whether conducting a research on a language
learning model development research or validation of a model research the
following procedures must be followed.
Step 1: Identifying design and development research
problem and related questions
a. Start by identifying a few broad problem
area of interest such as distance education, online learning, or performance
b. Conduct a literature review to identify if
there is a substantial body of literature in the area. As a result of the
literature review, you should be able to decide: Is the problem important? Is
the problem timely? Is the problem feasible (are there resources and expertise
to study the problem)? Can it be solved in a time available?
three areas that can be used as sources for identifying the problem for language
learning model design and development research project:
1. Actual settings and models
2. Technology tools particularly the newer and
more innovative examples (e.g., examination of computer-based training program;
the design and usability of a university website; examination of use of social
networks for learning).
3. Research-theoretical questions that are
based on current research and development literature
Step 2: Using the literature to identify and refine
the research problem
a. Consult a variety of sources for literature
in the field of study.
b. Use the results of literature review to
transform the research problem into specific research questions.
c. Narrow the focus of the study by specifying
parameters of research (e.g., what phases of the design and development will be
addressed or will the study focus on one particular phase (will the study focus
on a product, tool or model?). Will the research be conducted while the product
is being designed and developed? Etc.)
Step 3: Defining methods and strategies
Language learning model design and
development research is often focused on a specific model or method. This type
of research often examines the entire design and development process from
analyses to evaluation. However, given the resources, time and expertise you
may narrow the scope of the research to only one or two phases of design and
development. For example, when conducting model development, you may combine
the tasks of doing design and development and studying it. See Richey and Klein
(2007) for examples and more information.
A. Methods and strategies used for Language
Learning Development Research
Several research methods can be used for Product Development Research
research method using case study
provides a thorough description of the design and development process including
technological details. When using this method, the project is described from
its initial step to try out and evaluation of the product.
method using a systematic process of collecting data first during prototype and
then throughout the study.
This method allows for continued development and implementation of the model
method using in-depth interview. This method blends providing details of how the product is developed
and in depth-data collected.
B. Methods and strategies for research on learning
Some research projects in this category are
focused on evaluation of models and some are focused on the development and use
of technology tools. Both lines of studies, however, use many of the same
methods and strategies.
§ Case study method by using various data collection
strategies may such as survey, expert review, field observations and in-depth
interviews. This method uses qualitative approaches with some quantitative
§ Mixed methods using content analysis and
in-depth interview: This method is mainly descriptive.
C. Methods and strategies for development or
validation of the model developed
projects in this category are focused on developing a model while others may
focus on validating or using a theory-based model. Both lines of studies,
however, use many of the same methods and strategies.
1. Multiple qualitative methods:
This method is used for model development. The primary methods used are
content analysis of extant data and in-depth interviews and narrative data such
as journals and diaries.
2. Mixed methods: This method is also used for model
development studies and uses strategies such as survey, field observations and
a content analysis of logs.
3. Expert review method: This method is used for validation of a model
project. In-depth interviews techniques or strategies are often used to collect
data to determine if different components of the proposed model are supported.
4. Usability documentation method: This method is also used for validation
of a model. This
method is usually descriptive and uses data collections strategies such as
logs, self-check instruments, think aloud and in-depth interviews.
Step 4: Selecting participants and settings
At this point in the design and development
research process when the problem is identified, research questions are
formulated and methods and strategies are determined, you need to select
participants of the study and the context in which the study will be conducted.
Design and development research is often context-bound. Thus, it is suggested
that much emphasis be placed on the setting of the study as well as the people
participating in the study. The range of setting in which education and
training take place is broad. Examples of such setting are: schools (elementary,
higher education); business and industry; healthcare organizations; community
and government agencies.
The selected setting for the study must
include the conditions and elements that are matched with research questions.
In addition to the match between the questions of the study and the setting
elements and conditions, feasibility should also be considered when selecting
the participants and settings. Feasibility is defined as the extent to which
the study can be done practically and successfully. Related to feasibility are
resources available to the researcher; access to the setting or organization
and the issue of the organization proprietary rights.
The participants are often selected because
of their particular role in the design and development process. The participants
may range from designers, developers, clients, subject matter experts,
evaluators, learners, instructors, users and organizations. To identify
participants one often selects a sample of participants from a population of
interest followed by prescribed sampling techniques (Richey & Klein, 2007).
However, the population size and the population’s characteristics must be
considered when selecting participants and before applying any sampling
Step 5: Collecting data
As with other research projects, the data
you collect depends on the nature and questions of the study. However, design
and development research for Language Learning Models have unique variations
that make certain types of data more relevant than in other types of research. The following are examples of such data (see
Richey & Klein, 2007 for more information).
1. Profile data: Design and development research projects
typically have two types of participants: people who are involved in the
project such as designers and developers; design team, clients, learners and
instructors; the actual project itself (project scope, project resources, and
the nature of the particular product to be produced). Thus data should be
collected related to both groups.
2. Context data:
Context is critical part of design and development studies, as it is
also critical. Three context areas are important for design and development
projects: (1) the environment in which the design and development takes place,
(2) the environment in which the intervention is implemented, and (3) the
performance environment in which skills and knowledge are applied.
3. Progress project data: Collection of in-progress data is
critical to understanding the nature of design and development. It is important
to collect systematic data as the design and development is progressing. Some
of the data collection strategies include daily logs; tasks completed;
time-on-task; decision made; designers’ and developers’ difficulties and
challenges; designers and developers opinion; client attitudes; and subject
matter experts views and recommendations.
4. Try-out data: Collection of product evaluation data
from learners and instructors is a natural part of a design and development
project. Various instruments such as test and performance data; work log, surveys
and questionnaires, interview protocols and observation guides are often used
to collect try-out data (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009).
Step 5: Interpreting findings
The findings of the design and development language
learning models can be understood in terms of the following:
a. How findings can be used to expand the
knowledge base by providing rich source of information that can inform design
and development theory and practice
b. What lessons learned from the product or
c. What are the implications of model
developed or used?
Research on language learning model
development can be conducted by first selecting and describing an instructional
model that was developed for a specific situation. Description of the model includes:
§ Describing the basic features of the model and
principles used in its design and development
§ Describing current research on the
principles used to design and develop the model.
§ Describing the needs addressed in the model
§ Describing the goals and objectives of the model
§ Describing the target learners and learning
environment and equipment needed to implement the product
Once the program is described in detail,
select an evaluation model that is appropriate for evaluating the effectiveness
of product development (e.g., CIPP (Context, Input, Process & Product)). Given
the evaluation model identify a research methodology should be selected to
collect appropriate evaluation data. Collect data as the model is being
implemented. Analyze data and report findings.
Model Development Research
Design and Development Research can be
conducted during the design of a model. When conducting such a model the entire
design and development process must be documented. The procedures employed
during design and development should follow the tenets of instructional systems
design listed below (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009).
a. Front-end analysis: This phase encompasses
performance analysis; needs analysis; goal analysis, instructional analysis
(content analysis & task analysis) and learner and context analysis.
b. Design: This phase encompasses writing
performance objectives, identifying assessment strategies and developing
assessment instruments, and determining and developing instructional
c. Development: This phase encompasses
creating story board and developing or adopting instructional materials
(images, case studies, assessment items, presentations, video clips, podcasts,
multimedia materials, web pages, etc.).
d. Formative evaluation: This phase
encompasses designing and conducting formative evaluation.
e. Revision: This final phase includes using
data from formative evaluation to make proper changes and reexamine the
validity of the instructional analysis.
f. Impact/Summative Evaluation: This phase
determines the value of instruction and its effectiveness.
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