Di merangkumi tindakan kerajaan seperti interaksi formal termasuk

Di era globalosasi ini, usaha kerjasama
antara negara adalah merupakan elemen yang penting untuk mencapai kepentingan
negara masing-masing. Kepentingan tersebut adalah meliputi pelbagai aspek
seperti ekonomi, politik, sosial, keselamatan dan lain-lain. Di samping itu,
seiring dengan kesan permodenan dunia yang telah mewujudkan sebuah fenomena
kebergantungan dan berintegrasi antara satu negara dengan negara lain. Hubungan
yang bergantungan ini bukan sahaja dapat memberi impak yang positif terhadap
negara terlibat namun ianya juga mampu untuk mewujudkan suasana negatif dengan
sokongan perkembangan dalam teknologi dan informasi (Irdayanti, 2013). Justeru,
usaha untuk menjaga hubungan antara negara-negara yang bergantungan perlu
dititikberatkan. Oleh yang demikian, diplomasi adalah merupakan alat terpenting
untuk dilaksanakan demi mencapai ‘peacebuilding’
antara negara (Brinkmann,
2006). Peacebuilding
adalah merupakan proses pencegahan, pengurangan serta transformasi koflik atau
peperangan ke arah penyelesaian yang lebih aman (Brinkman, 2006). 

Oleh itu, untuk mencapai keamanan tersebut, diplomasi
adalah salah satu alat terbaik dalam aktiviti hubungan antarabangsa. Diplomasi
merangkumi tindakan kerajaan seperti interaksi formal termasuk termeteraian
perjanjian dan kenyataan awam serta jurucakap untuk menerangkan sesuatu
tindakan serta keadaan (Hurd, 2011). Dalam persaingan antara negara untuk
pengaruh, pasaran dan kuasa, diplomasi memainkan peranan dengan menggunakan
pendekatan aman seperti perbincangan dan perjanjian (Fendrick, 2008). Dalam
masa yang sama, diplomasi juga adalah aktiviti politik yang melibatkan kuasa
dan membolehkan negara mencapai objektif dasar luar tanpa ancaman, propaganda
atau sekatan undang-undang Berridge (2010).

Hubungan diplomasi dijalankan melalui
hubungan diplomatik di antara dua buah negara. Hubungan diplomatik yang
tersusun antara sesebuah negara dengan negara lain juga akan menghasilkan
hubungan kerjasama yang baik dari segi hubungan sosial, budaya, agama, ekonomi,
serta politik (Salmah Jan, Hashim dan Rozita, 2014). Kedua-dua negara yang
berkongsi sempadan haruslah menjaga tingkah laku serta mengamalkan penyelesaian
secara rasional kerana pertikaian yang melibatkan kawasan sempadan cenderung
untuk memberikan impak besar dari segi diplomasi dan keselamatan negara
masing-masing (Ruhanas, 2009). Tambahan pula, negara yang berkongsi sempadan
selalunya mengundang kepada migrasi rakyat antara negara kerana kedudukan
georgrafi yang berdekatan. Menurut Ayieko, (2016) hubungan diplomatik
yang baik cenderung untuk memberikan kehidupan yang sejahtera kepada migran
manakala hubungan diplomatik yang lemah akan menyukarkan migran untuk
mengasimilasi dan berintegrasi di negara penerima.

Terdapat beberapa cabang dalam bidang
diplomasi dan salah satunya adalah dalam aspek migrasi dan pekerjaan. Kini,
migrasi telah menjadi satu isu yang sering dibahaskan diperingkat pentadbiran
tempatan, nasional, dan antarabangsa kerana terdapat pelbagai isu yang timbul
hasil dari migrasi (Sekretariat Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, 2005).
Migrasi adalah langkah sementara atau kekal oleh individu atau sekumpulan orang
yang berhijrah dari satu lokasi geografi ke lokasi lain atas pelbagai sebab
iaitu dari segi peluang pekerjaan yang lebih baik sehingga kepada faktor penindasan
(Hagen-Zanker, 2008).

World Rights Movement, between the 1950’s and 1960’s

World
War II had just ended, surviving husbands are coming home from war to their
families. All had been expected to go back to normal in the male population’s
mind. At first, it had started to return to the normality fixed in society’s
mind until Betty Friedan’s, The Feminine
Mystique came out and aided to spark a movement that would affect
generations for the rest of time. Women’s rights in the 1950’s and 1960’s had
been more than just gaining equal opportunities and being given the right to
have a say whether they wanted to have a choice about their body when it came
to birth control; it all stimulated in the fact that women needed to have an
identity of their own, rather than just be a common housewife, made to just
have children and keep a home.

The
Women’s Rights Movement, between the 1950’s and 1960’s came to be known as the
second wave, the first being when women fought for the right to vote. During
the twenty-year period, activists such as Betty Friedan, Martha Griffiths, and
Gloria Steinem worked to gain inspiration and fought for the rights women
deserved such as equal pay, to get rid of gender discrimination, as well as to
fight for the right for women to have access to birth control. The first thing
one needs to understand to grasp why these rights had become important to the
majority of women in America is to look back to 1950 and 1960, to see what was
considered the social normality and what their every day lives consisted of. It
is from this that women found their main issues to fight for and what they
desperately wanted to see changed. With women knowing what needed to be changed
and seeking it, taking some look toward important woman activists, their work
and contributions as well as the movie Hidden Figures, which proves to be a
great example of this historic event, could one truly come to see the hardships
that had been faced throughout this time.

 A husband’s car pulls into the drive way, the
last item from the oven being placed on a trivet at the table. Children’s hands
have already been washed, the wife can be seen removing an apron as they wait
for the male of the house to enter the home. It had been a long day of
transporting the kids to and from school, cleaning the house, helping with
homework and preparing their final meal of the night. Her job isn’t over yet.
She is expected to welcome her husband home tenderly and serve him supper
before getting the kids ready and into bed. It is something she has grown used
to doing, and is being expected to continue to do so. The day she and her husband
exchanged vows had become the day that marked her identity of housewife for
what seemed to be the rest of her life. Wife and mother, was that all she could
be though? Often nights she could wonder, but with society, she stuck to the
normality that had become her life.

The
1950’s and 1960’s were a period where strict gender roles complied and many
adhered to the normality of social expectations. This meaning that a life for a
woman after marriage had been mapped out for the most part. They were expected
to be wives, and to bear children and be good mothers, as well as being
expected not to work outside of the home. Considering the need for women to
hold jobs during World War II when the men were off fighting for the country,
to turn back into this charade was something most women found hard to do. With
holding jobs throughout the war, they gained an identity of self-worth as well
as coming to the realization that they could in fact do the same work and jobs
as a man, even keeping up to pace. Being in a male’s world though, they did
return to their roles. Some considered the return to be boring, some felt like
they were unsatisfied with life. Others gladly returned to their role, being
that when kids were in school, they seemed to be able to find some down time
and start to enjoy just being a wife and mother. These women falling back into
old patterns were the women who took the first wave of rights for granted.
Instead of going to college for themselves, they went in search of a husband.
They dropped out to if they started to believe they were getting too educated
and that a male would not want a wife as educated as them. They basically
dropped out just to become a housewife and mother.

There
was no hiding the normality that society believed women should live. The
classic sitcom I Love Lucy is a fantastic example of the beliefs and standards
women were held to and how quickly men were to shoot down any type of behavior
or wants that a woman would have that would not fall under what had been
expected of them. From 1951 to 1957, this comedy influenced show secretly held
one of the larger issues at hand for the women’s rights movement. Lucy and
Ricky being a younger married couple, who although find themselves in silly
situations, where Lucy had always attempted to go to work with her husband to
be on his show. The excuse always being that Lucy should stay home to do
“wifely duties.”  Although, she did tend
to go against his wishes. She found ways to make her own money or even went as
low as to sneak into his shows. The show also featured another married couple
who tended to not be the picture perfect, happy couple and they were Fred and
Ethel. Both brought on to work on Ricky’s show from time to time. While looking
at this show today, with knowing what women were facing throughout the 1950’s
with their rights; it comes across as a message to say that in marriages where
both partners work there is little good and not much happiness.

With women being expected to fall
back into place, women activists began to take a stand toward a handful of
issues at bay. Most women wished to continue working and wished for an identity
more than just wife and mother. Even while some were happy to fall right back
into the old patterns of being a house wife. With this, followed a handful of
issues. The first being women and working in general. The right to hold a job
and not just the few limited jobs such as secretary, nurse or teacher that
women who had been employed were seen to do. The next being the Equal Pay Act.
With this, there was much controversy brought upon the situation, being
rejected in the beginning. But also, a rising awareness of the inequality of
lesbian women became to be a largely known problem as well as SCUM was brought
to the attention of gay women during that time.

In the early 1950’s, as men came home from war, most women
found themselves coated in guilt due to working. Feeling as though they
neglected their children and wifely duties. Although, there were women who
could not wait to stop working and get back to their children and house chores
such as the voice in “Why I Quit Working.” (INSERT QUOTES HERE AND EXPLAIN).
Nonetheless, she was just one voice for the common normality of American women
in the 1950’s and 1960’s. There were still more women who did not just wish to
be ‘mother and wife’. Plus, after being a working woman and gaining a wage that
allowed them to splurge and hold a sense of accomplishment, returning to just
being a mother and wife left them to feel completely bored with housework and
their own kids.

This resulting in women becoming depressed over the fact and
taking up drinking. With this problem at hand, The Equal Employment Opportunity
Omission (EEOC) became a reality for women in 1965. The EEOC became a federal
agency to ensure that civil right laws would be followed within work places and
discrimination; protecting individuals based on their gender, ethnicity and age
during the 1960’s. Dr. Arnold Toynbee once spoke that, “The twentieth century
will be chiefly remembered by future generations as an age in which human
society dared to think of the welfare of the whole human race as a practical
objective,” (Langley and Fox, 266). Even today, Toynbee’s words ring true. For
instance, in modern day America, it’s about rights for the LGBT community and
even still women continue to fight for future generations. Toynbee’s words show
in minor explanation that the 1950’s and 1960’s had been a rough fight for
equality not only for women, but race as well, setting up America for the
freedoms people still manage to take for granted today.

The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) had been founded
soon after World War II and the United Nations in 1947, starting with only
fifteen representatives. The CSW had a focus of awareness and legislative 

Life yet it is something beyond singular identity

Life is complicated, Unless you have prepared yourself to suspect something, it is a typical slip-up to accept that everybody sees and encounters the world a similar way you do. They don’t. This is the place the expression ‘the eye of the viewer’ fits delightfully. Our encounters and connections help shape us to be the people we are today and it is through to such an extent that we figure out how to decipher the world with exceptional points of view.Beyond any doubt everybody has his or her own thoughts, however those thoughts are to a great extent formed by social standards. You grow up around specific thoughts and sorts of individuals, and those are the thoughts you will bolster. The reality of the matter is that a few people like things others don’t, yet it is something beyond singular identity that influences these decisions. The way we see and understand things, this statement raises many inquiries like: Can you say that the human personality shapes the world as indicated by its learning demands? Does culture, our trusts constrain the way we ‘see’ and ‘get it’? Do we encounter a similar reality? We feel diversely towards the same moral issues, predicaments, circumstances, yet I think regularly our feelings are socially and culturally  developed.At last I figure we don’t access to the truth as it is all by itself, and that our impression of it is hued by the way our mind shapes it. In this way, surprisingly the way we see the world discloses to us more about ourselves than it educates us regarding the world in that capacity. I think world is excessively mind boggling, and we watch the world through various glasses, a portion of the glasses are shiner or darker than the others, it influences our methods for knowing, and we are controlled by our methods for knowing, that why it influences our seeing and comprehension. Consequently we should switch the claim: what we see and comprehend is restricted by the world outside – the very ‘things’ that we see shape our comprehension. At the end, I believe the colours on the girls hands act as people because our minds our shaped through what we learn from others right from the beginning of when we are born some people teach us brighter things than others and that’s how a perception of looking at things through our learnings of life is formed.

Cameron go right and you can go left.”

Cameron is one of the best explorers in the country. Right now he is exploring in a place called Edgebury which is an ancient hill fort that is on the edge of a town called Trehampworth. Tremhampworth is an ancient town that few people live in or visit. The people that visit get killed, but Cameron has come to this place to figure out what is really making everyone die. He is joined by his friend Kirsten; she is a clever detective and brings her german shepherd named Tabitha. Cameron brought them because he needs her help to solve this mystery. Two days after they get there Kirsten’s dog Tabitha ran in the woods. “We should split up,” said Cameron.”Maybe that is a good idea. I will go right and you can go left.” Kirsten said to Cameron worriedly. Cameron goes left and starts to call for Tabitha, so far he has had no luck. He continues to walk but he hears a noise and starts to run towards the sound. He trips over something, and when he looks to see what he tripped over, he finds a dead body. Cameron screams, and Tabitha comes running toward him with Kirsten right behind her.”Cameron what’s wrong?” she asked worried. She notices what cameron is pointing to and starts to examine the body. Cameron gets up and calls the police. When the police arrive, they inform Cameron and Kirsten that they have limited resources and can not provide much help. Kirsten asks “Can I help? I am a great detective.” The police officer said “Sure, we can use all the help we can get.” The next day Kirsten gets to work and goes to where the body was transported. She starts by looking at the body and realizes that no one would recognize the face because it was beaten so badly it was deformed. That’s not what killed her. She was stabbed 20 times. Kirsten took fingerprints and ran them through a database. She found out that the dead body’s name was Faith, and she lived in Texas. There were a lot of things she learned about Faith. Kirsten and Cameron go out to find out what Faith was doing so far from home. They went around asking people questions. They asked this guy named Marcus if they knew the victim, and he told them that he didn’t. They found out that the victim was staying in a hotel on the other side of the town. This puzzled Kirsten because why would someone that is staying on one side of the town be found on the other side of the town. They go back and question Marcus because they found out that Marcus knew Faith. They ask Marcus a lot of questions like where he was on the night she was killed, but he had an alibi. He told Kirsten that he was at his cousin’s birthday party until 10pm, and he told her that after the party he went home with his girlfriend. Kirsten and Cameron went to check the validity of his alibi.Kirsten went to the forensic building to see what they found out. Faith was beaten with a wooden object, and she was stabbed by a steel weapon. They kept questioning people, but they never got any closer until more bodies were found. Kirsten began worrying because this body was more decayed than the first one they found, so it was harder to get fingerprints. They did a dental test to find out who this person is. It took them 5 days to figure out who she was. Kirsten found out that the bodies that were found have only been female, and they were visitors in this town. For days the police kept looking for more bodies, and they found over 5 bodies in total. Kirsten kept looking for more evidence, but the only thing that the murders had in common was the stab wounds being made with the same weapon.Kirsten begins to make a suspect list. Marcus is at the top of the list because part of his alibi didn’t check out. Marcus paid a girl to be his girlfriend because he thought he would look suspicions.  She continued to question people and someone came forward and said they saw Marcus with all five girls before they died. Kirsten races to the court and gets a search warrant. She shows up at Marcus’s place and hands him the warrant. She grabs Tabitha from the back of her truck and has her sniff for bombs or other dangerous stuff.Kirsten starts looking for wooden and steel weapons. She began grabbing and and testing the different weapons for blood. Kirsten found what she was looking for. She found a wooden bat that had traces of blood on it. She also found a steel knife with a lot of blood on it. She put the weapons in an evidence bag. Kirsten goes back to the forensics building to see if the blood matched the victim’s. The lab tech said ” the blood match the five victims that we found but there are 4 mysteries blood samples. Kirsten goes to find Marcus to arrest him. When she found him she put him in handcuffs. “Marcus you are under arrest for the murders of five girls.You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided for you. Do you understand the rights I have just read to you? With these rights in mind, do you wish to speak to me?” says Kirsten. Marcus replies” I want my lawyer. NOW!” She takes Marcus back to the police station. In a few hours he is taken to the court to he what his bail is set to. The judge says he can’t have a bail. The defense attorney hands the prosecutor a blue paper the says The judge wants to see us in the judge’s chamber. The prosecutor goes to the judge’s chamber to see why he wants to talk. The judge says” The attorney that the defendant hired is telling me that marcus needs to be seen by a psychologist.” The psychologist meets Marcus in a private room at the courthouse. Marcus is asked a lot of questions about his health and if he sees or hears voices. The psychologist tells the judge that the defendant needs to be put in a mental hospital for further treatment. Marcus is sent to Tremhampworth Mountain Mental Hospital. They are a poor hospital so they don’t have much security. Marcus as a few people visit him each day. As marcus sits there he is coming up with a plan to escape.He figures out that he can use a widow to get out because the windows aren’t locked. He opens the window and and climbs out. He begins to walk and sees a girl that looks lost. He walks up to her and ask. ” Hey are u lost?” she replies “yes i am extremely lost. I am just visiting so I am just winging it.” “Maybe i can help you.” Marcus politely offers. They walk to an alleyway and he tells her it’s a shortcut.  He walks behind and has he walks he grabs a metal pole. He brings it up to a batting position.  He swings and hits her multiple times till he notices that she is dead. He gets scared so he drops the weapon and runs back to the mental facility. This time he is not thinking and he runs through the front door and gets seen by five nurses and one doctor. When Marcus gets back to his room he washes his hands. The police and kirsten are at the crime scene and they notice that the murder was brutal. The killer left a lot of evidence and he left the murder weapon behind. Kirsten bags up the evidence and clues. She takes them to the forensics building and has them run the stuff for prints. A few days later she goes back to the forensics lab and asks them what they found. They tell her that Marcus’s prints were on the murder weapon. She gets puzzled because marcus is in a mental place. She goes to the hospital and asks the nurses if marcus left his room at any time last night. The nurses say yes he did we saw him run through the front door. She checks the security cameras to make sure the nurses weren’t lying. She see Marcus run through the front door with blood on his hands. She goes to his room and arrest him once again. He is put back in a jail cell till his trial.When the trial began he said he was guilty and he should go to jail. He told the judge “Why should i have a fair trial when i killed innocent girls.”The judge charged him with Second degree murder. The police put him in a very secure prison. While he is there the other prisoner start to hate him because he is sarcastic, rude, and he likes to steal people’s stuff. The guards begin to hate him because he starts riots. They finally have enough of it so while Marcus sleeps the guards suffocate him. The guards also get the prisoners to help them by hanging Marcus from the ceiling. The police never investigated the case because he murdered people. Cameron, Kirsten and Kristen’s dog Tabitha leave Trehampworth. Kirsten tells Cameron. “looks like another mystery solved. Where are we heading next?” Cameron replies “I don’t know yet, all I know is the next place will have another mystery.”

The paper, I will start by presenting both

The Efficient
Market Hypothesis is one of the most well-known and influential theories in
financial economics. Extensive literature exists on the topic, as many
economists have written about the concept as well as trying to extend upon its
framework. The origins of the theory date back to the 1960’s, nevertheless,
half a century later the concept is still discussed and very highly regarded,
which provides motivation for this essay.

In contrast
to this theory is the Adaptive Market Hypothesis. This idea provides a more
extensive, modern look at the EMH theory. Proposed decades later, the AMH aims
to emerge the EMH concept with behavioural finance ideas to reform the idea that
many individuals have on EMH trading strategy.

In this paper,
I will start by presenting both the EMH and AMH concepts in full. Outlining the
strengths and weaknesses of both. I will then conduct a comparison of the two
concepts to form a decision on which idea seems to be superior – if any.  

Efficient
Markets Hypothesis (EMH)

As with
many economic theories and ideas of the modern day, the origins of the EMH can
be traced far back. This theory was initially illustrated by Paul Samuelson
(1965). In Samuelson’s paper, “Proof that Properly Anticipated Prices Fluctuate
Randomly”, he adds that in an informationally efficient market, price
fluctuations cannot be foreseen. However, Eugene Fama (1970) formalised this
hypothesis – the theory of EMH generally states that securities markets such as
the stock markets are efficient in pricing, reflecting all publicly available
information. The view was that when new market information arises, the news
quickly spreads, and the market adjusts the security price reflecting the new-found
information without delay. Therefore, neither fundamental analysis or technical
analysis, bear any advantage to investors as these theories are based on
information and if they security price already reflects the information then it
makes them redundant.

Fama (1970)
identified three levels and strengths which explain the efficiency of a market.
These three levels are ‘strong-form’ EMH, ‘semi-strong-form’ EMH and
‘weak-form’ EMH. 

Strong-form
EMH, states that if all relevant information is available to existing and
potential investors and this information is then in turn reflected in the share
price then the market is efficient.  For
example, if the market price is valued lower than it should be, as there is
privately held information, the holders of the private information will exploit
this by buying shares. They will continue to do so until the driving up the
price to which they believe the shares to be worth – supported by the
information. At this point they will sell their shares and withdraw from the
market with a profit. This is an example of strong-form EMH. In theory this is
the most ideal form of EMH for investors. 

The
semi-strong form EMH theory says where all publicly available information is
reflected in the market price a market is efficient. This practically appears
to make more sense of an efficient market. It is thought that markets will
quickly mirror the publication of new information and set a new equilibrium
price. Semi-strong form EMH has practical significance over strong-form EMH as
it can be more practically observed and tested.

Weak-form
EMH is strongly allied with the “Random Walk Theory”. This theory was a term
coined by Burton G. Malkiel, simply put the theory states that securities
prices are completely random therefore are not influenced by any past
events.  The central idea behind this
theory is that the randomness of security prices purifies markets such that
finding price patterns and taking advantage of new information becomes
redundant. Due to this, all known information is fully reflected in prices.
Therefore, uninformed investors can obtain a rate of return similar to returns
achieved by investing experts.

Adaptive
Market Hypothesis (AMH)

The AMH
model, as proposed by Andrew Lo (2004), is an attempt to extend upon on and merge
the EMH model with behavioural economics. The AMH model emphasises the apparent
irrationality of markets as a rational reaction to a change in environmental
conditions. AMH is based on biological evolutions such as competition, learning
and adaptation.

More
generally, the theory is about market conditions being based somewhat on
imperfect individual perceptions of how recent changes may or may not affect
future asset prices. Despite the qualitative nature of this hypothesis, AMH
offers strong implications for the practice of portfolio management, the core
principles of this theory consist of: (1)
individuals act in their own self-interest; (2) individuals make mistakes; (3)
individuals learn and adapt; (4) competition
drives adaptation and innovation; (5) natural
selection shapes market ecology; (6) evolution
determines market dynamics1

It is
implied that the market efficiency is based on evolutionary principles and
environmental factors such as the number of competitors in a market and the
able of market participants to adapt to the market conditions. According to Lo
(2004) the AMH can be viewed as an alternative to EMH, derived from
evolutionary principles.

Under the
AMH investment strategies will be cycle through periods of profits and losses
as a result of changing market conditions, changing number of competitors entering
and exiting the market and the extent of profitable opportunities. As these
opportunities change, so do the affected populations. The AMH has specific
implications. The first is that opposed to EMH, there are few arbitrage
opportunities, as the absence of these opportunities would leave no incentive
to gather information on security prices. However, as investors use these
opportunities they disappear.

1
Lo, Andrew W. Ph. D. (2005), RECONCILING EFFICIENT MARKETS WITH BEHAVIORAL
FINANCE: THE ADAPTIVE MARKETS HYPOTHESIS, VOL. 7, NO. 2. 

3.4 dikeluarkan untuk mengedukasi masyarakat, baik itu dari

3.4
Solusi dari Permaslahan Krisis Air Bersih dan Sanitasi di Indonesia

            Melihat kepada kondisi masyarakat
Indonesia saat ini yang masih kurang kepeduliannya terhadap lingkungan, menyebabkan
masyarakat masih kesulitan untuk medapatkan akses air bersih yang sehat dan
layak. Ada beberapa solusi yang dapat di terapkan untuk mengatasi permasalahn
krisis air bersih dan sanitasi.

            Langkah yang paling mendasar adalah
pemerintah menanamkan kesadaran masyarakat terhadap kepedulian lingkungan
sekitarnya sehingga terciptanya lingkungan yang sehat dan bersih, walaupun
telah ada program PHBS (Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat) yang telah digalakkan
sejak anak – anak berada di bangku sekolah dasar. Rasanya hal itu belum cukup untuk
terus mengkampanyekan hidup bersih dan sehat dikalangan masyarakat. Perlu
tenaga ekstra yang lebih dikeluarkan untuk mengedukasi masyarakat, baik itu
dari peerintah mauun lembaga masyarakat, terutama untuk masyarakat miskin yang
minim akan pengetahuan tentang kebersihan serta sanitasi sehingga mereka dapat
mengerti manfaat serta terhindar segala bibit penyakit yang dapat menyerang
mereka.

            Kemudian Langkah selanjutnya
pemerintah harus memberi perhatian lebih kepada masyarakat-masyarakat yang
kurang mampu mendapatkan akses air bersih. Dengan menaikkan anggaran daerah
agar dapat memepermudah akses masyarakat memeperoleh air bersih merupaka
langkah penting yang juga harus diterapkan, karena pemerintah mengemban tangung
jawab yang besaruntuk kesejahteraan rakyatnya.

            Langkah yang dapat diterapkan lagi
yaitu menjalinkerjasama dengan lembaga – lembaga internasional utuk turut serta
membantu mengatasi permasalahkan air bersih dan sanitasi di Indonesia.
Contohnya lembaga PBB, melalui pernatara WHO atau UNICEF dalam mewujudkan
tujuan ke 6 SDGs yaitu ketesediaan air bersih dan sanitasi yang layak bagi
seluruh orang. Kemudian masih banyak langkah –langkah lainnya dalam mewujudkan
hal tersebut.

 

The it is shown by thefact that it

The word disparity means a great difference and this is what is shown by the social classin society. Throughout A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens, the effects of social class on thesociety show how poverty and injustice are depicted. Dickens shows the injustices all throughthe book by displaying the difficulties between the rich and the poor. The inequality within thisbook is shown through the ways that the royalty and aristocracies live compared to everyoneelse. Most people of a higher class wanted everything to stay as is, but as you go down the classranking you can recognize that people seek change in society. For example, it is shown by thefact that it takes four men to get chocolate for Monseigneur every morning. By his actions, thereader can see how the class of royalty is portrayed and how they treat the poor. Through thediction Dickens uses it reveals how unjust the society is and how the poorer you are the morechange you seek.The division between the poor and rich are vivid as there is a lack of care for the peasants andother lower class people. With this, it caused hatred among the peasants towards the rich as theyget to live expensive, excessive, and lavish lives while they do not. The wine scene in chapterfive is an example as it uncovers the difference between class in France.When the wine bottlesbreak on the street on St Antoine, the poor run with excitement as they lick up all the wine offthe floor neglecting the mud that was assorted with it. “All the people within reach hadsuspended their business, or their idleness, to run to the spot and drink the wine.” (Dickens 41)This scene is compelling as since they were so poor they were feverish to drink the wine off theMtengwa 2floor without a care. Not only can the unjustness be depicted here but the need for change aswell.The middle class in the novel is very evident as they are not living outlandish lives but are alsonot on the streets fighting to survive each and everyday. Characters such as Mr. Lorry fall intothis class through his actions and dialogue. When Mr. Lorry is communicating with the dovermail guard, the class difference is seen through the elevation of their speech. The guard’sungrammatical language is phased by Mr. Lorry’s grammatical sentences and lack of slang.”‘There is nothing to apprehend. I belong to Tellson’s Bank.'” (Dickens 17) Here it is madeobvious that there is a discrepancy in class. With Mr. Lorry working at Tellson’s bank he doesnot seek as much change compared to someone who is in a lower class than him. This is becausehe is a working individual who can sustain himself. As stated many times he is a man ofbusiness.Throughout this novel, Dickens loves to demonstrate how rich the rich actually are byshowcasing the lifestyle they live. Monseigneur and the Marquis are examples of this as they feellike they are above everyone else in society. Monseigneur can be seen as lazy as he requires fourpeople to get his chocolate every morning. This task is so simple and frivolous that it isridiculous to need four people to do this. “… his morning’s chocolate could not so much as getinto the throat of Monseigneur, without the aid of four strong men besides the Cook.” Hislifestyle can be seen here as it is different than anyone else and is one of royalty. He does notfind the need for change in society as his life is elegant. On the other hand, the Marquis wantspeople to think of him as almost being Godlike. When riding through the town he runs over asmall child, and when stopped he looked at the father in disgust as he could not figure out whatthe problem was. He throws a coin to the father as compensation for his child’s death and goes onMtengwa 3to blame the residents for not paying mind of the carriage. The Marquis further states, “‘Youdogs!… I would ride over any of you very willingly, and exterminate you from the earth.'” Thisadditional aids to his Godlike sense as he feels higher than all the peasants in the town. Fromthis, it is clear as to how the royalty live and how they treat the lower class. It is also coherent asto why the poor would want to seek change in the way things are happening.In conclusion, Dickens reveals the unfairness of society by showing the inequality between thedifferent social classes. There is a large gap between the classes as the rich get to live luxuriouslives while the poor are struggling to survive for the next day. People of a lower class seek morechange in society as they feel that with change they can begin to prosper. As shown the rich feelsuperior to all others as they require much more attention and treat the poor very unfairly.

Mahmoud (group B). All patients proved to have

Mahmoud Khairy
Elhaish.

Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Assiut
University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Corresponding Author: Dr.Mahmoud Khairy ElHAISH, MD.

Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Telephone: (002)01224579171

E-Mail: [email protected]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

Objective: Evaluation of safety and
early outcome of temporal coronary clamping in comparison to intraluminal shunting,
during distal anastomosis in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

Methods: To evaluate the short term outcome of coronary clamping, we randomly compared the results of 25 patients submitted to coronary clamping using microvascular clamps during off-pump CABG (group A), with the results of another 25 patients had traditional
intraluminal coronary shunting during same procedure (group B). All
patients proved to have coronary artery disease with no difference
between the groups in preoperative clinical variables.

Results: Clamp group (A) had significant
shorter operative time than shunt group (B); it was 224.2 ± 44.1
min in group (A) versus 250.4 ± 33.7   in group (B).

Our new coronary clamp was easily applied in (93%) of target
vessels but coronary shunt tube was implanted in nearly all (96%) target
vessels during distal coronary anastomosis.

No target vessels were injured on insertion or removal of coronary
clamps.

Low number
of patients in Clamp group (A) required inotropic support (adrenaline > 0.15
ug/kg/min) >
24 Hours during perioperative period. The study showed two cases of
mortality in both groups.

At 6 months
follow up; No clinical difference between both groups, but late postoperative
ejection fraction (E.F) in group (A) was better compared to group (B).

 

 

Conclusions: This temporal coronary clamping technique may be
used as an option to achieve a bloodless field during
off-pump CABG surgery. It appears to be
faster and
cheaper than intraluminal
shunting.
Also, it met current incidence of postoperative complications, mortality and intensive
care unit stay.

 

Keywords: Off-pump CABG; Coronary Clamping; Shunting.

 

 

Blockchain the resulting amount in traditional currency to

Blockchain based transfers benefit both private users and businesses. For the former, it makes
it possible to transfer small amounts at a low cost. For the latter, they can rely on blockchain
to execute substantial wire transfers to clients or partners in a fast, reliable manner that is
also highly cost effective.
But there’s a problem. At present, cryptocurrencies function fairly well as an asset, but remain
virtually impossible to use as a means of payment in everyday life: users have to manually sell
their crypto assets on an exchange, then transfer the resulting amount in traditional currency
to their bank account. Only when this transfer is completed can they use these funds to make
purchases.
TOKIA – bridging the gap
Can traditional financial players provide the fast, efficient, affordable financial services
businesses and individuals need? The answer is no. They can simplify their front end
operations, but the machinery behind it still causes problems because of the way it is
structured. For example, someone making an international transfer is still charged even if the
transaction isn’t cleared. To make matters worse, it will probably take a long time for them to
become aware that the transaction has been declined, an additional headache for both
businesses and individuals.
Let’s be clear. Traditional banking has been with us for thousands of years, and has done a
decent job of stimulating economic growth. But now it is lagging behind. Emerging
technologies are already there and ready to be adopted, but by failing to do so these
companies are both depriving their customers of the gains these new technologies bring and
making themselves vulnerable to competition from new entrants. And these new players don’t
depend on a long chain of intermediaries to offer their products to the market.
Blockchain might just be the technology that will change how we perceive 

1.1. extreme fatigue, and when it gets accumulated

1.1.
Lead as a Toxicant and Poison

Lead has long been studied as a toxicant
because of its high potential to cause various detrimental health effects.
Chronic lead toxicity is quite common and can lead to irreversible health
afflictions relating to the renal system, central nervous system, and hepatic
system among others. Lead acts as an enzyme inhibitor by binding to proteins
including enzymes. Organic lead compounds which are highly toxic are taken up
easily by the human body. Chronic lead poisoning can cause anaemia, extreme
fatigue, and when it gets accumulated in high quantities, can cause damage to
various organs of the body.

 

1.2.
Lead contamination in fish

While the most studied ways of lead
contamination are via paints, contaminated soil and drinking water, lead in
food; specifically from lean meats and fishes is being increasingly looked
into. Toxins released into water bodies are taken up by fishes via their feed
as well as through their gills. Lead, a common toxicant is mainly found in fish
muscles, gills and the liver. Due to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications, the
lead is not degraded and passes on from the contaminated fish to other animals
that consume it, including humans.

 

2.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

§  In
2005, William G. Brumbaugh and Christopher Schmitt studied and compared the
concentrations of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in fish from mining influenced waters
of Northeastern Oklahoma. Despite mining having ceased in this region more than
30 years ago, the heavy metal wastes remain widely distributed. Liver, blood
and carcass samples from common carp, bass and catfish were analysed using
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Common carp was found to
have the highest amount of lead. (Ref.)

 

§  From
2011-2012, Elin Boalt, et al carried out a study on the presence of lead,
mercury and cadmium in Baltic herring and perch from the Bothnian sea. The
samples tested were dorsal muscle layer, liver and carcass homogenate. Lead was
reported most often in the carcass homogenate and liver. (Ref.)

 

§  Rohasliney
Hashim et al studied the levels of lead, cadmium and nickel in fish collected
from the Kelatan river in 2014. The dorsal muscle tissue from 13 fish species
was the analyte and the study was carried out using a graphite furnace atomic
absorption spectrometer. Omnivorous fish were found to have high levels of
cadmium and nickel while carnivorous fish had the highest concentration of
lead. The species O. Hassetti and T. Maculates had lead concentrations that
exceeded FAO Malaysian Food Act and WHO guidelines. (Ref.)

 

§  Shovan
MNH et al, in the June, 2017; conducted a study to determine the levels of
heavy metals in the various organs of 3 commonly consumed fishes in Bangladesh
– Catla, Pangus and Rohita using
Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. The gill of the Pangus fish was found to
have the highest concentration of lead (~48.3 ppm) that had far exceeded the
limits of WHO. (Ref.)

 

§  The
concentration of heavy metals in farm sediments, feed and selected heavy metals
in various tissues of farmed Pangasius
hypothalamus in Bangladesh were studied
by Das et al in July, 2017. The concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel and
mercury were below WHO recommended limits but their concentration in the gills,
kidney and liver of the fish were high above the tolerable level and hence the
fish are unfit for human consumption. (Ref.)

 

 

3.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES

3.1.
Aim

To determine the concentration of lead
(Pb) in locally consumed fish species, Lutjanus
gibbus and if they are fit for human consumption.

 

3.2.
Objectives

§  To standardise a spectrophotometric method for the
determination of trace amounts of lead in the homogenized carcass of Lutjanus gibbus

§ 
To
compare UV spectophotometry and Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry as methods for
determining trace amounts of lead in fish.

§  To estimate whether the sample is suitable for food or
feed based on World Health Organization – Maximum Level standard.

 

4.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1.
Sample collection and Preparation

Lutjanus gibbus
was obtained from a roadside fisherwoman in Anna Nagar West who is frequented
by the residents of the place. The particular species was chosen because it is
among the commonly solf species of edible fish in the market. The fish was kept
in the deep freezer until it was to be used for the experiment. For chemical
analysis, homogenization was done using sodium phosphate buffer and the extract
filtered.

 

4.2.
Preparation of standard Lead Solutions

A 100 mL stock solution of lead was
prepared by dissolving 160 mg of lead acetate in double distilled water. The
solution was standardized with EDTA using methyl blue as indicator to determine
the concentration of lead in it. A series of standard solutions ranging from
25-150 ?g of lead were prepared. 

 

4.3.
UV-spectroscopy Analysis

To the standardized lead solutions
ranging in concentration from 25-150 ?g, 1.5 mL of            1.95 X 10 -4 M dithizone
solution was added. This was followed by adding 1 mL of 4 X 10 -3 M
HCl and 4mL of 0.3 M CTAB (Cetyltrimethylammonium
bromide). The mixture was made upto 10mL with double distilled water. The
absorbance was measured at 500nm against a suitable reagent blank. The
absorbance values of standard lead solutions were plotted to produce a
calibration graph. The absorbance value of the sample was also determined by UV
spectroscopy.

 

4.4. Atomic Absorption
Spectroscopy

A
similarly obtained and treated sample was given for Atomic Absorption
Spectroscopy analysis and results obtained by absorbance at 216.9nm.DISCUSSION:The lead concentration in the sample was
assessed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The obtained value of 1.46
ppm is less than the maximum permissible values set by the WHO of 2 ppm. Hence
the fish is suitable for consumption. But, if more fish of the same species is
consumed, there is a risk of the lead concentration crossing the permissible
limit, and thus possibly being harmful to the consumer, also, as lead has the
ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify, if this fish species were to be
consumed by other predatory fish, it could further increase the lead
concentration in the fishes eventually consumed by humans. Initial testing was carried out using a
UV/Spectrophotometer at 500nm. But the resultant absorbance was much higher
than the WHO standard limit of 2ppm and did not fall within the calibration
graph obtained. Youngsters are more vulnerable to the
deleterious effects of trace amounts of lead and can suffer from permanent
adverse health defects, mostly affecting the brain and nervous system
development. Lead can cause long-term health impairment in adults, such as high
risk of blood pressure fluctuations, and damage to kidneys. Exposure of high
levels of lead to pregnant women can cause stillbirth, low baby weight,
premature birth etc.  7.
FUTURE PERSPECTIVEThe concentration of lead in various
fish species could be studied and compiled. This would give an idea as to the
overall lead intake of an average person in the locality who consumes fish from
the same source. 8.
SUMMARYLocally obtained
Lutjanus
gibbus was spectrophotometrically analysed for presence and
concentration of lead; both by an UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (Lead-dithizone
system in a HCl medium) and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

The obtained
concentration of 1.46ppm while lesser than the WHO maximum limit of 2ppm, still
poses a threat to the health of consumers as lead has the ability to
bioaccumulate and biomagnify.