Tanya for feed formulation and produce lipase from

 Tanya Surya Utami et al. (2017) has been done
the production of dry extract extracellular lipase was formed by Aspergillus Niger
using solid state fermentation to catalyze biodiesel synthesis. Substrate was
obtained from rice bran and rice husk inducer with olive oil. wet crude extract
and supernatant was dried to increase the activity of lipase and final product
was formed dry extract or powder form.

   Helen Treichel et al. (2015) has been done
the production of lipase from a newly isolated aspergillus niger by solid state
fermentation and substrate as a canola. The lipase was characterized
esterfication and hydrolytic activity, specificity and satiability.

   Samanta Hernandez-Garci (2014) has been done
the purification, immobilization and characterization of a lipase was obtained
by aspergillus niger using c8 magnetic particles. Aspergillus niger crude extract
using magnetic particles with hydrophobic C8 aliphatic chain one step
purification step. Characterization was done when lipase digest on to MaKProt
magnetic particles

Aliyu Saliyu et al.
(2016) has been done the production of lipase was formed by the aspergillus
niger using sheanut cake. Sheanut was act as a substrate and remainder
substance obtained after the extraction of fat from sheanut. Aspergillus niger
strain display potential and reduce anti nutritional components level and suitable
for feed formulation and produce lipase from solid state techniques.

      Hamid mukhtar, Ikram ul Haq et al.(2015)
has been done the production of lipase was obtained from aspergillus niger from
solid state fermentation. Screening and isolation of fungal culture from soil
samples was done for the production of lipase by solid state fermentation.
Aspergillus niger was a good manufacturer of lipase. Enzymes production was
increased by optimizing fermentations parameters.

Gwen Falony,Janny Coca Armas
et al.(2006) has been done the production of extracellular lipase was obtained
from aspergillus niger by solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation
on a mineral culture medium and wheat bran. Culture medium was valid for both
ssf and smf. Aspergillus niger was a good maker for the extracellular lipase. It’s
important to optimize the fermentation process to increase the lipase

 Maryam N. Hosseinpour. Ghasem D. et al. (2011)
looks at how Lipase was produced by aspergillus niger in the submerged
fermentation using soya flour. The most important nutrient was carbon and other
component nitrogen source and olive oil were required. The good nitrogen source
were peptone and yeast extract for supreme enzyme activities. Activities and
media composition of enzyme were determined. 

Regiane Ribeirodos santos et
al. (2014) looks at how Lipase was produced by Aspergillus niger 11T53A14 in
the wheat bran. Aspergillus niger 11T53A14 was a well known good lipase
producer and wheat bran act as an substrate. The insertion of lipid substrate
as oil is crucial to achieved excessive lipase production. Microorganisms were
used in fermentation process inoculated into the medium including nitrogen,
sunflower soapstock and wheat bran.

 Nehad Z.Adham et al. (2009) looks at how the
extracellular lipase was obtained by aspergillus niger NRRL3. The
characterization of aspergillus niger NRRL3 lipase would be sapplicable for
dairy products, flavouring and food processing. Extracellular lipase was
optimized from the strain aspergillus niger in submerged culture and determined
characterization of purified enzymes.

SHUZheng-Yu et al. (2007)
has been done the purification and characterization of lipase was obtained from
aspergillus niger F044. Aspergillus niger strain was produced with different
characterization and overproduction strain was isolated from oil stained soil
samples. Lipase was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation,
ion exchange chromatography techniques.

  Verónica Leticia Colin, Mario Domingo Baigorí
(2011) looks at how Mycelium bound lipase was formed by aspergillus niger
MYA135, was studied Cultured in the absence or presence of olive oil in
biodiesel synthesis. Lipase produced in transesterfication of ethanol using
p-nitro phenyl palmite as acyl donor.

Mhetras et al. (2009) has been done the purification and characterization of
acidic lipase was obtained from aspergillus niger NCIM 1207. It is active at
high acidic ph. Aspergillus niger was NCIM 1207 was produced excessive amount
of extracellular lipase. Aspergillus niger was purified ammonium sulphate
precipitation by phenyl sepharose and sephacryl-100 chromatography. Enzymes
showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. Purification of lipase and mass spectrometric
analysis done by the purified proteins. Aim of work to purify and characterize
lipase produced under submerged fermentation. It has ability for industrial
application for the flavor and biodiesel production.

  Guang Liu· Songqing Hu et al.(2015) has been
done the purification and characterization of lipase was obtained from
aspergillus niger AN0512. Lipase was high thermostability and polar organic
solvent stable. Lipase was purified from the fermentation broth of aspergillus niger
which was isolate from yak butter. The activity of AN0512 was measured with
p-nitrophenylpalamitate. Lipase was separated by precipitation at first then
purified by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, size exclusion


Analía Marini et al. (2011).looks
at how Lipase was isolate from solid culture medium of aspergillus niger NRRL3
two phase produced with polyethylene glycol and potassium phosphate. Separation
of enzyme by ATPS formed by PEG1000/pi at ph7 PEG2000/Ci ph 5.2 isolate
extracellular lipase from aspergillus niger strain in submerged culture and
solid culture. 

Hidayat, Sari Darmasiwi et al.(2015) has been done characterization of
lipase was found from aspergillus niger65i6 which was produced by  solid state fermentation using Jatropha seed
cake as the medium. Jatroha seed have high level of protein, suitable, and
highly potential as a medium for lipase production. One step purification was
done by anion exchange chromatography. aspergillus niger was alkaline, and
lipase had ability to hydrolyze long chain fatty acid of acylglycerol. It was
steady with polar organic solvent.

 Tania Maria Costa,  Katia
Luiza Hermann et al. (2017) has been done production of lipase was found
from aspergillus niger grown in different agro-industrial waste by solid state
fermentation with
different carbon sources. Purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the
composition of the solid culture medium on the production of lipolytic enzymes
by the fungus strain Aspergillus
niger. The mixture of wheat bran, rice, glucose, husk showed to be good medium
for lipase production and strong instrument for finding the optimal
composition of the culture medium in the production of lipolytic enzymes by
Aspergillus niger, which is esssential feature for the progress of SSF

Jia Jia, 1  Xiaofeng Yang el al. (2015) has
been done production of extracellular lipase from an industrial producing
strain aspergillus niger was improved optimization. Aim of the work was to the
influential parameters were determined and optimization of fermentation medium
for the industrial production strain by a series of single-factor experiments,
Box-Behnken Design BBD method which can also access the result and connection
of different medium components. This study also given obliging experiences for
production of industrial advancement.

JG1, Edwinoliver
NG (2007) has been done the production of lipase from aspergillus niger MTCC
2594 by mixed substrate solid state fermentation using wheat bran (WB) and
gingelly oil cake (GOC). Wheat bran and gingelly oil cake was used as a raw,
material or substrate for the production of enzyme and other value-added

3.1. illustrates a typical architecture of WordPress, which



A content management system (CMS) is a computer application that
supports the creation and modification of digital content using a common user interface and thus usually supporting
multiple users working in a collaborative environment. WordPress is the best
choice for a project which deals with a large amount of content primarily
because it provides a simple single-click installation directly from the
website, it is supported by almost all the major domain and server providers
worldwide and most importantly, it is free to use. WordPress
Learning Management System, which supports both video tutorials as well as text
documents, is used to create the project. The major features of woocommerce
Plugin include a lot of pre-defined functionalities and layouts which are
suited for making and selling courses online. The major features include
Page-Builder (a drag and drop interface containing the most used elements like
tables, whitespaces, headings, paragraphs and so on), Login and Register
Facility, Paid & Free Courses and Advanced Courses Search option. The theme
runs on the Bootsrap Framework, which makes it responsive to any screen size,
be it a laptop, desktop, tablet or a mobile phone.

3.1. WordPress Architecture

figure 3.1 illustrates a typical architecture of WordPress, which is
essentially composed of three things, the WordPress.org, which is the server
hosted by WordPress themselves, WordPress.com, which is where anyone can
develop websites and Self Hosted servers, where anyone can host their websites.




3.2.1 Woocommerce

the WooCommerce module to insert WooCommerce content into any page. With the
WooCommerce module you can easily insert any of the following WooCommerce
shortcodes into your layout:

Single product
Product page
Multiple products
Add to Cart button
Order tracking
My account

The Product Description module is in
the WooCommerce modules category, which appears only when
you’re editing a Singular-type theme layout in Theme Builder and you’ve
assigned a single product page as the location. This module has a General tab
and an advanced tab.

On the General settings
tab there is one setting: 

(Short description, Full description)

The short and full description come
from what you’ve entered for each product. If you have Type
set to Short description and you preview a product without a
short description, you’ll see the placeholder woocommerce_template_single_excerpt
displayed. In the published product page, if a product has no short description
then nothing is displayed.  

Introduction Libyans. Amusingly Europe’s legislation is anxious of


In the past 2 years, the dilemma of European Exile has been
experienced growth which puts a great compression on European countries. The
notorious disaster has roots in April 2015 as five ships transporting 2000
exiles overturned in the Mediterranean which lead to about 1200 deaths.

The greater strength of exiles searching for
identity in Europe arrives from African and Gulf nations. Savagery expulsion in
2013 led to 1.3 million individuals leaving their havens behind and taking
shelter in other states.  Ethiopia, Kenya
and East Africa were the places individuals take safety in. As the exiles of
Tunisia and Egypt left their states, shelter searchers from Somalia, Sudan and Eritrea
extracted from Libya into Europe. Although these evacuees attempt to search
identity in Egypt but it itself is unsteady.

Conducive to Europe many have risked
crossing the Mediterranean Sea due to the discharge of the competition of
rivalries of civil armies including the 2014 combat in Libya. Libya’s denial on
working with the UNHCR and other universal organizations has concluded in
deepening the situation more. Therefore, not much can be ended disseminating
chains since no reciprocity has come from Libyans. Amusingly Europe’s
legislation is anxious of these criminals but cannot convict them without the
collaboration of Libyans.

Greek islands are used as a course into
Europe by some exiles. Be that as it may, numerous refugees had to be saved
from the ocean to avoid them dying. Nations presently receiving many of the
evacuees are afflicted and universal humanitarian philanthropic aid is tumbling
less. Therefore, the peril course towards Europe seems better than subsist in
impoverished, overcrowded refugee camps.

            This refugee
situation has resulted in the rise of tensions in EU because of the huge load
experienced in some nations, particularly the ones having exiles in them. Europe’s
leaders stay parted on how to best react to the crisis with pressure still consecutively
high. This crisis has exclusively tested the legitimacy and authenticity of Europe.

Literature Review

Individuals often flee war, brutality and barbarity just in optimism
of preservation, more chances and harmonious stay. Several pull and pull
factors enable people to leave home state. These factors include Civil Strife,
Wars, Political and maltreatment, environmental problems, lack of jobs and
poverty. Only to upgrade themselves people will take any risk (Jimenez,2015).

Peril ways of migration is Mediterranean
Sea. In it upon 3455 people have demised according to results mentioned by IOM
(International Organization for Migration) by 2015. In this pathway refugees
are abused by numerous thieves and blackmailers. The smugglers and the traffickers
are distinct in reverence to the International Legal Framework (Loescher,1993).
The smugglers routinely overload the boats not worthy for sea; give insufficient
nourishment, water and fuel for the journey. They put the lives of people in
danger in event of a shipwreck (Suhrke,1994). Anyhow authorities detain or cite
the criminals in consequence of charges they do to the innocent individuals (Jimenez,2015).

Aim of Europe’s strategies includes counter peril
methods of migration. The policies created governments of European Union focus
on stave off retreat and diminishing advents (Nanda,2010). This stresses the
push factors and hardships individuals are faced with in their nations and
which are key drivers among many arriving in Europe today (Jimenez,2015).

Thousands of deaths at the Sea represent the
disastrous risks people for avoiding bankruptcy, abuse, and war. The danger
along the hazardous migration ways does not dissuade individuals escaping the
conflict or political or religious persecution. The human rights of migrants
and asylum seekers should be respected as an obligation (Bello,2016).

Dramatic circumstances are established at
different borders of EU by the significant exile rush. Enduring humanitarian
crisis is made on the isle by persistent arrivals at considerable intervals.
Among numerous who reached Greece via ocean continue to proceed their journey
through land by Western Balkans experienced police abuse in Hungary, Serbia and
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia because of which violent now and again ruthless
scenes at the border crossings have been prompted (Varga,2015).

Framework of international obligations in
contemporary times regarding the individuals who are grave need of security and
protection dates back after the finish of Second. Because of the gigantic
pressure which emerged from 1930’s onwards in Europe, the international
conventions had to be refreshed and reexamined (Nanda,2010).

The 1951 Geneva Convention on the Status of
Exiles and the Protocol (The Refugee Convention) of 1967 are the foundation or
keystone of universal safeguard for exiles. The essential components of this
convention are that it first defines who a refugee is. Then in second it
requires member nations to respect or obey the statement of eradication, which
implies a person who cases to be a displaced person not at all return to nation
where there will be maltreatment. Hence each member country should contemplate or
at least assess an application of Refugee status also security before any move
to eject a person to his or her birth nation or to any else country where there
is a danger of abuse. Lastly it gives out the immunities and statements in
respect of behavior towards refugees (Monnet,2013).

The UN’s International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights 1966 (ICCPR) incorporates at Article 7; the preclusion of inhuman,
barbaric or rough treatment. The UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,
inhuman Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984(UNCAT) at Article 3 forbiddance
on the ejection, sending back an individual to other country where there are
reasons for trusting that he/she would be in peril of torment. Each member of
EU have signed and agreed to ICCPR and UNCAT (Bello,2016).

There   are
two territorial individual immunities tools in Europe. 1950 (ECHR) European
Convention for individuals on immunities is initial one. This convention is
accepted by all representative states of Europe. ECHR prohibits in its Article
3 against torment and barbaric behavior or punishment also including ban and prevention
on returning to a state where there are evidences that cruel treatment will
again occur (Monnet,2013).

EU covenant on basic immunity is the second
instrument; consequently, it affiliates with the Europe’s judicial formation.
Its Article 4 forbids misbehavior in all ways, similarly Article 18 gives the moral
to take shelter or refugee and Article 19 comprises prevention on sending back
to the state where there is proof for believing in death, brutal or murderous
behavior. Ever since the Lisbon Treaty has started working it is unalterable
towards the Europe’s organizations and the representative nations when they are
working with EU law.  Tribunals of Fair
play are responsible with looking at the translation and employment of the
Charter (Monnet,2013).

However even in the Universal and territorial
individual immunities means there is considerable consistency in
responsibilities towards those who need universal safety. Excluding the Convocation
for Exiles, all other conventions allow omission of protection duty once recognized.
Notwithstanding the access of protection is the most fundamental case. Since
Member States consider the proposition of non-expulsion only applies to those individuals
who have proficient the two criteria. they have arrived on land of the receiving
nation in the aim to get protection and lastly there is no other country safe
to which they can be returned too. These both criteria are significantly
provincial therefore they have lead to very adverse methods in the European
region upon which individuals looking for protection and safety are left to
succumb in the international waters as no state is ready to take them for their
own safety. Consequently, these people having universal safeguard claims are compelled
to terrible states by the authorities of the Union (Strik,2012).

One of the most vital task provoking the reserve
organization as of now is access to safety by those qualified for it. Generally,
states contradict the accountability in relation towards exiles which do not
come specifically at the borders and give themselves to the important
authorities. The pragmatic consequence of this is that availability to safety
in EU has been made contingent on the refugee obligation to arrive stealthily
in the region of the member state. In respect to such actions no options are
left with refugees yet to take uneven methods for movement towards a state
where there is the likelihood of safety (Monnet,2013).

Responsibility is alleged of in much opposed
way. As a result, refusing responsibility aggregated in contemporary times. A
net of extraterritorial measures for controlling and minimizing migration flows
in every step is given by developed states. High oceans outside territory
including agreement with other countries that place responsibility on them for
the wellbeing and security of shelter searchers represent demarcations for
non-entrée. Other states for instance Australia, USA and Canada have use their
absolute territory for evading responsibility of refugees (Varga,2015).

High standards of safety and protection in
connection to refugee crisis are taken up by EU. 83 million costs of
humanitarian funding to assist refugees in boundary have been given by the Projects
of Europe as in of April 2016 for Greece. This support is available for
utilization in any situation foreseen by the Member states for example in case
of the sudden influx of refugees. Initially this crisis over 22.5 million has
been given by the Europe’s Projects to the former Yugoslav of Macedonia and
Serbia. The most vulnerable individuals can get help through partner
associations (Rudolf,2016).

A deal signed with the Turkey by the EU the principle
is to minimize the uncontrollable move of evacuee towards Aegean Sea which is
one the major routes for the refugees. About 10 billion by Europe has been
dedicated to counter crisis.  Double
efforts are being made by the EU to carry on finding and help operations in the
Mediterranean Sea and to overcome the criminal activities (Rudolf, 2016).

Statement of the problem

flow of refugees and migrants has been consummated by EU utmost of them
departing fear and animosity in Syria and other countries. The EU is deficient
to boost preservation at the boundary, addressing trafficking of exiles and
providing impervious approach for individuals to arrive. Millenary persons have
succumbed at sea due to which. If International law for refugee’s flounders to
pledge nations in regulating the immunity of those which are entitled as
evacuee thereupon it will consequence in supplementary refugee outflow.

Wretched and cannibalistic circumstances one and the other intramural
Syria also in adjacent States, have incited evacuation of millions of clans
within Europe. Only in 2015 likewise heaps of male, female as well as infant
dared the fatal expanse passage towards Europe
just so they can be safe and find opportunities to rebuild their lives.

Humongous part has been carried on by the States in managing the
situation that is not courteous and feasible. Because of the politics inside
Europe stateless persons are being cemented in camps or maybe disintegrating in
the waters instead of displacing them cautiously inside the state. It cannot consolidate if it is perfect
enough to handle its matters over the Union even if respective states are
amenable to put their differences aside. Notwithstanding intenational law can
deliver to promulgate the perplexity of refugees as well as administer a
political stance on which their interests can be deliberated.

Research Questions

What trials
are confronted by EU governments in regulating as well as concentrating on
the instantaneous and prolonged requirements of stateless people? Do the
prevailing postulates and stances fortify ample security of the outcast

Objectives of the Research

The objective and aim of the study is to explain the
pertinent legal framework presently available to aid in managing and resolving
of the problem. This study seeks to scan the recently adopted EU initiatives to
best respond to the challenges created by the crisis. It aims to examine the
engagement of organizations (European Union) to support the refugees whether
they have eased the situation or further deteriorated it.

Significance of Research

The researcher tends to highlight the inadequacy in universal
legislation to address the immediate and prolonged needs of stateless
individuals. Research shall as well consider the efforts, measures of existing
policies. This testing is exceedingly vital as it contributes to the study of exile
situation in Europe, and it is going to be an excellent source for the future
researchers, students investigating on an identical theme.


Negligence by international law to address violence,
conflicts and human right abuses in the genesis nation is resulting in
irregular migration towards Europe.

Legal Framework

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

It is the fundamental legitimate archive which models the
ground of my endeavor. This convention characterizes the phrase refugee and
summarizes the priorities of the evacuated as well as the contractual liability
of Nations to preserve them. In present day, it is the main key of legal exile
safeguard. A sole characterization of the phrase “Refugee” is ratified in its
Article 1. Lastly the Convention cites the necessary littlest codes for
handling the exiles.

Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees

The 1951 Convention was an upright WWII utensil basically
confined in purview to individuals departing occurrences arising afore January
1951 and inward Europe. As compared the 1967
Protocol detached these constraints and as follows gave the Convention
comprehensive broadcast. Ever since then it has been build up with refugee and
ancillary preservation reins much of sectors along with revolutionary
establishment of international human rights law.

UN Convention Against Torment

The Torture Convention was the reaction of several years
efforts proposed rapidly afterwards the enactment of the Declaration on
Protection of Persons from Torture (Torture Convention, Resolution 3452). Nevertheless,
the Declaration was designed to be the outset mark for added performance across
torment. It involves translation of misery in Article 1and perpetrates groups
to take useful part to avoid persecution in any area under their control.

Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 1966

This observes in consonance with the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, the concept of freebie individuals relishing the local and
legislative immunity from dismay. It defines that all people should for their
terms can adapt of their innate abundance without being bias to any duty. Every
nation ratified by the Covenant devotes towards every individual to appreciate
and assure within its area right to ability.

Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 1950

This is an international accord to safeguard human rights and
elemental abilities in Europe. In the 1950, it
was outlined by the just established European Committee. According to it the
immunities of a person not by the State party shall take this subject before the

Research Methodology

The researcher shall analyze the origin of the exile disaster
situation in Europe and the international perspective related to it. Hence the
research is historical, descriptive and analytical in nature. The process for statistics
gather for research will be qualitative as relevant information will be
gathered from existing literature.  The
research would make use of the secondary data obtained from published journal
and research articles.


The researcher would not cover the other ways in which Syria has
posed threat to the existing legal order as well as barbaric conduct of it
towards its population as well as using force against them. In the manner that
while discussing the respective crisis how the similar issue will consider upon
it. Accordingly, this research presents for the future researches to accomplish
this hole.

Organization of Study

Section I

of the crisis

Section II

situation in Europe Examining
pertinent International law for RefugeeEurope’s Regional frameworksChallenges Europe instant response towards refugees

Section III

Legal framework

Geneva Convention 1951 & it 1967 Protocol

UNCAT Article 7a

ICCPR Article 3

ECHR Article 3,4, 18 & 19

Section IV

Findings DiscussionsRecommendationsSolutions


After all WWII, the European Refugee Crisis has been expanding
monetary assets, changing legislature and spraining the vertical organizations
established to preserve the abstinent at accord and unabridged. Even so it
should be luminous to each representative or European Union that none of the
state can accept the hardship of dilemma solo.

is a major elucidation to the disaster. Displacement is the deportation of the
displaced individuals towards a nation which has allowed concede eventually
allot them perpetual citizenship. UNHCR is administrated by endemic statuette also
UN General Assembly to commence displacement as a tenacious quick fix,
considering it yields exiles with substantial and legitimate safeguard.

States of EU have righteous obligation comfort individuals departing savage
reigns or institutions. However, the deficit to conclude a contrast among the
exiles and fiscal travelers has deteriorated the situation. This catastrophe necessitates
compelling means and valuables European nations to firm out the entanglement.
Secure and legitimate courses must be established for the evacuee to grasp
Europe. In this way bourgeois would be reconvened with their beloved ones and
prohibiting exposure their beings. Belligerence towards these exiles will only
lead them to endure more jeopardy courses eventually.

Europe is held down by the Geneva Convention
to supply preservation to respective individual’s fundamental to dismay of
mistreatment. Nevertheless, other nations should also consider their
responsibility particularly the Gulf nations.

The responsibility to collaborate with UNHCR
consecrated in Article 35 in the Refugee Convention as well as cited categorically
in Laws of EU is to be considered earnestly. Elucidations are not feasible to
obtain unless leaders invest in benevolence and unanimity over insignificant
squabble like who can even manage the millennial exiles in their state, but
they ought to consider that refugee crisis should be all mankind’s crisis.

A my curriculum, I had an opportunity to

A powerful, deep and far-reaching transformation is underway in the industry. It is fundamentally changing the way we design and manufacture products and what these products can do. Being an unhackneyed mechanical undergraduate, I believe it is my responsibility to contribute towards a sustainable future of industries. I believe that this is a two-step process, the first being, augment a design philosophy that incorporates advanced manufacturing processes. And second, is its optimization analytics. The amazing aspect about this field is that it provides knowledge about two fields: Engineering and Business. Thus an Industrial Engineer can resolve issues from managerial perspective while considering the technical elements of a project. Having taken up Mechanical Engineering to comprehend the basics of Manufacturing, I want to expand my horizons and gain a comprehensive understanding of Industrial Engineering at the Clemson University.


A comprehensive program of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (BE), where I achieved a score of 3.59/4 GPA laid a strong fundamental base for my career. Acquiring an extensive industrial exposure through internships was useful in confirming my inclination towards Industrial Engineering. During the third year of my curriculum, I had an opportunity to do an internship at Mather and Platt pumps. In my stint there, I was involved in ‘Layout Optimization’ used for the flow of material from assembly till dispatch. I made use of ‘Queuing theory’ to determine the waiting time required for the tested pumps to be dispatched and applied knowledge of CPM-PERT techniques gained in undergraduate courses like Industrial Management and Operation Research to redesign the activity flow.


An industry-sponsored project in the final year, was even more decisive, where I worked on ‘Design and manufacturing of special purpose machine (SPM) for re-boring of printing machine walls’. The project was focused on solving real-life industry problem of production loss during maintenance. The SPM helped in increasing productivity by reducing the machine downtime due to maintenance activity.  I further extended the scope of this project by conducting a market analysis and selecting suppliers. Strong knowledge of Mathematics and Machine Design helped me carrying out a major role in design calculations, thus helping me in fulfilling the task efficiently. Along with these, my knowledge of manufacturing processes helped me in optimizing cycle time. This project provided me an insight into industrial engineering and thus, I developed a keen interest in the field and started looking forward to working in the same field.


I entered the industrial domain by joining Tata Technologies Ltd., through campus recruitment drive, with an aim to work in the field of Industrial Engineering. I executed competitive teardown-benchmarking and Costing-Sourcing activities. During one of the Value Analysis and Value Engineering (VAVE) sessions, I proposed an idea to replace the current practice of top aperture door panel making with a new method of the vertical sash and bend sash welded sheets. The implementation of this new method led to 15% saving in costs, as it made use of sheets of different thickness for door making and reduced the additional reinforcement. The experience gained during my antecedent internships proved to be useful in my future role in Supply Chain Management (SCM) wherein I provided ‘Global Sourcing’ and established a reliable local supplier network for a multinational manufacturer such as PSA Peugeot Citroën. My contribution to Global Sourcing involved, making parts available at a lower cost in France from Indian suppliers by coordinating with the client and potential supplier companies to build a reliable supply chain for the client. I was involved in all phases of the supply chain start from component development to logistics. This was the time wherein the importance of teamwork got imbibed into me and my interpersonal skills were enhanced. My team also bagged the ‘Best project of Quarter’ award for our outstanding performance.


Impressed with my contributions to the first project, management decided to involve me in conceptual costing of Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery (THCM) Backhoe Loader. I applied my knowledge of VAVE on the concept models, which in turn helped the project management team in maintaining the target cost.  This is important as it avoids the unnecessary hustle of reaching cost and weight targets in the product prototyping stage. Further, my analytics skill helped me conduct comparative serviceability study in successive projects on client vehicle and devise valuable inputs for ongoing full vehicle development program.


In this period of my professional career at Tata Technologies, I have developed myself technically in the applications of industrial engineering. To broaden my exposure to other domains in addition to automobile domain, I decided to apply this skill set in consulting small scale industries to hone my skills and to gain ground knowledge of core manufacturing industries and foundries. I am currently involved in addressing the issues faced by foundry and manufacturing units with regards to the quality of machined and casted parts used in Tata Motors commercial vehicles as well as Mahindra tractors. I also gained a better sense of time-management. I truly believe that a rigorous master’s degree focused on Industrial Engineering would help me propel my career and achieve my goals.


I have always been a consistent performer and have always handled my responsibilities with dedication. In order to gain knowledge and enhance my understanding of current industry practices, I have attended international conferences on Lean Manufacturing and also completed Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification. Along with this, I have participated in various workshops like Non-Destructive Testing, Internal combustion engines, to get hands-on training experience. As a departmental coordinator of the National Social Scheme (NSS), I also volunteered in the support campaigns for survivors of natural disasters like Malin landslide. The motto of NSS ‘Not Me But You’ inculcated in me a deep sense of empathy towards the problems faced by the community and thus I continued my social work through the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Tata Technologies Ltd.


Coming from a technical background and inspired by the concept of management, I wish to climb the echelons of a management consultancy wherein I would be able to develop solutions for a diverse range of Industrial Engineering applications. This will further help my clienteles to increase their productivity and profitability by implementing optimization techniques on the acquired data. Having gained a strong foothold in technical aspects of design and manufacturing through my undergraduate program, I now plan to gain in-depth knowledge of topics such as Supply Chain Design, Fundamentals of Supply Chain and Logistics, and Modeling Systems under Risk. An opportunity to work under the aegis of Dr. Scott J. Mason, whose work in Modeling and analysis of large-scale supply chain and manufacturing systems is of special interest to me, makes this university my first option for higher studies. I’m also interested in the work of Dr. William G. Ferrell in the field of Supply chain logistics systems design and analysis and would like to learn more about his research in warehouse operations modeling.


I have also read about the Clemson Institute of Supply Chain Optimization and Logistics (CISCOL) & Center for Excellence in Logistics and Distribution (CELDi) labs at University of Clemson. I’m fascinated by the applied research on improving the management and control of supply chains and next-generation systems used for solving new and unique supply chain issues. Hence I would like to be a part of these labs and learn about focused research with principal expertise in the area of Supply Chain Optimization, Logistic & Distribution. This makes Clemson University a perfect choice for me and I am optimistic to work with expert faculty and be a part of their avant-garde research.


I am confident that my past experience and areas of interest put me in a strong position to secure admission to Master’s degree. I look forward to begin an affiliation with the Clemson University.

Virtual local points of presence through Internet providers.

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a data network that allows
its users to perform secure and private transmissions over a public network
such as the Internet. Also, it is equipped with encryption, packet tunneling,
and firewalls to ensure secure transmission of data. By replacing leased lines
and remote accesses servers and other less known technologies, VPN reduces the
cost by 50 to 75. It provides businesses with a flexible network enabling them
to quickly respond to the changes in the marketplace (Cisco Systems,
2001). It is called “virtual to indicate that although you could treat
the circuit between two sites as a private line, it was, in fact, not
hard-wired and existed only as a link when traffic was passing over the
circuit” (Kosiur, 1998, p.


Since VPNs provide private and secure connections
across public networks, mainly the Internet, it makes it possible for the
businesses to extend their networks to their remote offices, telecommuters,
external partners, mobile users, and customers. Typically, companies and their
remote offices establish VPN tunnels by setting up connections to local points
of presence through Internet providers. Afterwards, it is the responsibility of
the Internet service providers to handle the transmission of data between the
networks and the Internet infrastructure, which does not require permanent link
between the sites. Generally,
VPNs are used for two applications, remote-access VPN and site-to-site VPN.

Remote-access VPNs enable employees, customers, and partners connect to the
company network by connecting to local 

These in the process, adsorption of the protein

These enzyme immobilization methods
can be classified into the five groups as shown in Fig. 2: (1) Adsorption of
enzyme onto support. (2)  Entrapment. (3)
Cross-linking of the enzyme protein with glutaraldehyde as a bifunctional
reagents. (4) Covalent binding of the enzyme to a reactive insoluble carrier.
(5) Encapsulation. 



The easiest way for enzyme
immobilization is the physical adsorption of the enzyme protein onto a solid
carrier. This method depends on the physical interaction between the enzyme
protein and the surface of the carrier. This can be brought out by mixing
enzyme with the carrier (Johnson et
al., 1996; Jegannathan et al.,

Adsorption is characterized by the
fact that no reagents but only little activation steps are demanded (Nisha et al., 2012). Therefore, adsorption
is cheap and less distributive for enzyme protein compared to chemical methods
of attachment. The binding occurs by hydrogen bonds, salt linkage as well as
Vander Waals forces (Brady and Jordan, 2009; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).

Due to the week bonds involved in the
process, adsorption of the protein resulting from changes in temperature, pH,
ionic strength or even the more presence of substrate, is often observed as a
disadvantage (Zhang et al., 2013).

Another disadvantage is non-specific
adsorption of other proteins since the immobilized enzyme is being used (Zucca
and Sanjust, 2014). This may change the properties of the immobilized
enzyme or the substrate and the velocity of enzyme catalysis may be decreased
and this depends on the mobility of substrate and enzyme (Rao et al., 1998; Shelley, 2011).




Confining of a particular enzyme
inside lattices for polymerized gels in considered as other method for enzyme immobilization
(Zhang et al., 2013). This
facilitates the free diffusion of low molecular weight substrate as well as the
products of reaction.  The known
polymerization of the hydrophilic matrix in aqueous enzyme solution is followed
by breaking up the polymeric mass to certain particle of the desired size (Lam
and Malikin, 1994).

Calcium alginate hydrogel beads are
commonly used as carriers in the entrapment of biocatalyst (Li and Li, 2010;
Shen et al., 2011). This method
of low cost, high porosity and simplicity of preparation, however this material
has some limitations due to including high bimolecule leakage, biocompatibility
and large pore size (Li and Li, 2010; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).

Since no bond formation in occlusion
process between the polymer matrix and the enzyme it is applicable method that
in theory, involves no disruption of the protein molecules (Sassolas et al., 2012). Other disadvantage
for this method is that only substrate of low molecular weight can diffuse
quickly to the enzyme protein. This method is suitable for other enzymes such
as dextranase, trypsin and ribonuclease (Marangoni, 2002).

The pore size for synthetic gels of
the polyacrylamide may result in leakage of some entrapped enzyme, sometimes
after prolonged washing (Grosova et
al., 2008; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).


Enzyme immobilization has been
carried out by intermolecular cross-linking of the protein, either to bind to
other protein molecules or to bifunctional reagents on an insoluble support
matrix (Sheldon, 2007; Tran and Belkus, 2011).

Cross-linking is used in conjugation
with one of other methods (Lam and Malikin, 1994; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).
The covalent cross-linking with polymers, such as glutaraldehyde have been used
to increase the encapsulation efficiency and control release of enzyme from the
gel matrix (Li and Li, 2010; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).

Using cross-linking method for enzyme
immobilization is relatively cheap. Many aldehydes and other cross-linking
agent are used for this purpose (Kurby, 1990; Zucca and Sanjust, 2014).

Covalent binding:

The formation of covalent bonds
between the enzyme and the support matrix is used as immobilization method. The
choice is limited by the fact do not cause loss of enzymatic activity and the
active site of the enzyme must be unaffected by the used reagent (Copeland,
2004; Zhang et al., 2013).

The suitable functional groups of
proteins suitable for covalent binding include : 1) ?-carboxyle group of the
chain end and ?- and ?- carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid, 2) the
imidazole group of histidine, 3)  ?-amino
groups of the chain and amino groups of lysine and arginine , 4) the phenol
ring of tyrosine, 5) –SH group of cysteine, 6) –OH groups of serine and
threonine, and 7) the indole group of tryptophan (Marangoni, 2002;  Singh,2009).

Aminoethyl cellulose has been
attached to the carboxylic acid residues of enzyme protein in the presence of
carbodiimide. It has been reported that SH residues of enzyme protein have been
linked to the thiol groups present in the cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide
and non-acrylol cysteine (Copland, 2000; Nisha et al., 2012).

The disadvantage of this method is
that it often causes the low activity recovery which is resulted from the
destruction of enzyme active conformation during immobilization reaction. Also,
the multipoint attachment to the supports or steric hindrance of enzyme or the
strong strength of covalent binding causes low activity recovery (Zhang et al., 2013).


In this method enzymes are physically
entrapped inside a porous matrix. Bonds involved in stabilizing the enzyme to
the matrix may be covalent or non-covalent. The matrix used will be a
water-soluble polymer. The form and nature of matrix varies with different
enzymes. Pore size of matrix is adjusted to prevent the loss of enzyme.

size of the matrix can be adjusted with the concentration of the polymer used.
Agar-agar and carrageenan have comparatively large pore sizes. The greatest
disadvantage of this method is that there is a possibility of leakage of low
molecular weight enzymes from the matrix. Examples of commonly used matrixes
for entrapment are: polyacylamide gels, cellulose triacetate, agar, gelatin,
carrageenan and alginate (Dwevedi, 2016).  

Personality in conscientiousness trait indicates that am thoughtful,

Personality plays a very important role in the life of every person. It’s the blueprint of who we are in terms of our temperament, emotions, and feelings about ourselves as well as others. Personality plays a significant role in shaping our psychological being. In short, the personality of a person is the sum of the characteristics or traits of the person for others. The big 5 personality traits comprise openness to experience, agreeableness, experience, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion (De, 2000). Notably, the big 5 personality traits are a mixture of various traits such as behaviour, emotions and adventures, curiosity, etc. It was truly interesting to get to know more about myself when it came to my personality by undertaking the Big 5 personality test. I had varied scores which is a comprehensive indication of the different traits that make up my personality. Amazingly, I scored 32 on the conscientiousness trait which is the highest of all the five traits. The high score in conscientiousness trait indicates that am thoughtful, organised and responsible person. I am one person who is not influenced by spontaneous change but rather work with plan and remain disciplined through. The agreeableness trait was my second highest trait with a score of 24, which shows that am cooperative, kind hearted, and sympathetic person, as well as adaptable to changing circumstances as well according to others (De, 2000).  Neuroticism trait came third after conscientiousness with a score of 20, which shows that sometimes I get anxious easily despite of being naturally low tempered. Moreover, I had a relatively high score in Extroversion trait compared to other trait with a score of 18 which shows im partially an outgoing, people-oriented, and friendly. Unfortunately, I scored the lowest in openness with a score of 6, which shows that am a conservative and a status-quo person. Leadership effectiveness is closely associated with conscientiousness, openness, and extroversion traits. My high score in conscientiousness is a good indication for my preparedness in being an effective leader by remaining a responsible and thoughtful person who is ready to think on other ways of approaching situations. The unfortunate low score in openness trait is a wakeup call to me that I should readjust myself to be accommodative to variety and adventurous towards becoming an effective leader. Additionally, on the part of extroversion trait I had a considerable good score, which also shows that I should work hard to increase my interactions with others to make myself acquainted to people towards becoming an effective leader. My personality scores from the Big 5 personality test are of great significance in shaping my behaviour towards work, school, and teamwork. At work I will have easy time working with my colleagues given that am a kind-hearted person, cooperative, responsible and organised person. At school I may not be the best person for group discussion given by my poor openness trait since am not that explorative in nature. However, I feel I will be effective in teamwork given that am sociable, cooperative with considerable low tempers.ReferenceDe, R. B. (2000). The big five personality factors: The psycholexical approach to personality. Seattle u.a.: Hogrefe & Huber. 

Passionate during the time he is there the

Passionate instincts can overtake us within the blink of an eye. Guilty feelings will wash over, and soon take control of us. We’re propelled on an exciting, dangerous bender which could potentially destroy everything. Throughout history, humans have given into our polygamous nature through the act of infidelity, and men and women have been unfaithful to one another over the course of time. However, particular time periods and cultures have contrasting viewpoints on infidelity often depending on gender. Chopin wrote fictional stories in the late 18th century, and was condemned due to the immorality of her work. While it has traditionally been men who have encouraged marriage, Chopin gave readers a woman’s perspective of how repressive marriage can be for a woman, both emotionally and sexually. The Storm, by Kate Chopin is a short story, which focuses on the relationship between former lovers, Calixta and Alcee. Alcee takes refuge from a storm in Calixta’s house, during the time he is there the two make love while Calixta’s husband and son wait for the storm to pass in a local store. Chopin subtly interprets that our sexual urges are irresistible, but the outcomes are positive for everybody involved. Calixta is first introduced in the story as a homemaker, which would have been the predominant role for women during the 1800s. Her frustration is due to both the limited social roles she has and the absence of passion in her marriage. This portrayal  is shown through Chopin’s characterization of Bobinot and Calixta prior to the storm. Bobinot is described as sitting “stolidly” on the keg, while holding the can of shrimps he purchased for Calixta. Bobinots lack of sensibility and emotion are apparent, which leads to Calixta frustrated as “she sat at a side window sewing furiously on the sewing machine” (Chopin, 4). She hardly notices the emerging storm, until it gets too dark for her to see her work. Her suppression leads to loosening her saque at the throat, a symbolic gesture specifying her directness by drawing attention of another. This simple move would not be significant today where we are free to wear whatever we want, however, in the eighteenth and the early nineteenth century, women were expected to be covered from the neck-down at all times. Chopin intentionally wrote these subtle details in her short story, and had gone unnoticed by her readers.           Alcee, a dominant character, shows up at Calixta’s front door right when the storm kicks off, which makes us question his ulterior motives.

In reproduced the fact that the leaves reflect

In the following statement of purpose, I have highlighted the reasons for
deciding to pursue graduate studies. This is a brief summary of my reasoning
for graduate study, academic experience, interests and experience.

Having a cleaner environment and inexpensive energy is important for supporting
and improving our quality of life and improving energy efficiency is one way to
meet increasing energy demands. Cleaner surrounding also has numerous health
benefits as well. We are in a world of finite resources and an increasing
population, where science is critical in designing and maintaining systems of
support. Before getting to the present, my interest in the Environmental Sciences
can be traced back to a project I did as an undergrad where I grew plants based
on the visible spectrum of light. This was a Biology project where I used red,
green and blue light to grow my plants where the results reproduced the fact
that the leaves reflect green light.

Following this, I chose Chemistry as my intended major with a minor in
mathematics. Chemistry research has taken me from learning about the metal binding properties of a protein and its role in carcinogenesis.
Here I performed protein expression screening of transformed E.coli cells containing this protein.
The project involved the development of a protein extraction method using
lysozyme which was later analyzed using UV-VIS Spectrometry. Following that
experience was another which used similar techniques; protein expression
screening of a lignin degrading enzyme and attempting to fold it using metal
ions for later analysis. During both projects I learned the basics of protein structure and
methods for expressing and extracting it. I was able to develop skills of
working alone, with minimal instruction and supervision while maintaining the
required safety regulations.

My Chemistry
Journey ended with me doing research on environmental topics. For my Master’s
degree, I studied the reactions
of Tetrabromocyclododecene (TBCD), a flame retardant by product, with reduced
sulfur species in aqueous solutions. My results of those reactions showed the
formation of an unknown product, possibly an organic polysulfide. The reasoning
behind these reactions is that studies have shown that the parent compound, the
flame retardant, can removed from the environment due to action from reduced
sulfur species and the hope is that same can happen to it’s by products. My
next assignment was using the principles determined from the hard soft acid
base theory to analyze and measures the reactivity of organophosphorus
insecticides. The experiments were performed by spiking an insecticide into
solutions containing a nucleophile and observing the changes over time. Both of
these research projects thought me how to perform kinetic studies. I was able
to learn analytical instrumentation, such as the GC-FID and HPLC both were utilized
to quantify the degradation products over a pre-determined time course and
observe any product formation.

Being raised in
Trinidad and Tobago, I grew up in an economy which is bolstered by oil and
natural gas. As a result, whenever the price fluctuates, there are economic
consequences. There are also environmental consequences, most recently, oil
spills.  I decided to confront the
challenges in energy which plays the crucial role in our lives. Since renewable
energy makes up approximately zero of the total energy consumption and
witnessing several spills and a lack of energy security, I can no longer live
with the idea of sustaining such a system. This leads
into my present pursuit; I am currently pursuing an MSc in Renewable Energy
Technology.  As applicant interested in
your program I would not only be bringing Chemistry skills but also knowledge
of renewable energy systems. Renewable Tech has continued to strengthen my
interest and knowledge in shaping the environment. In a nutshell I am learning
how to conserve the planet’s ecosystem by decreasing carbon emissions. I am
naturally intrigued by the complexity and beauty within our world and how vital
it is that we preserve it. So far I’ve learned the fundamental
physics of Wind, Solar, Geothermal and Bio-energy. I have learned how to plan
and develop a wind farm site using software. Also, performed a lab on solar
insolation and also did a financial feasibility study of a mock solar
thermal 60 MW plant, using RETScreen Software. 

 My Bioenergy project was five weeks long and involved
twenty people. We looked at the production of Bio-gas from several sources.
This was quite the learning experience; the ability coordinate with twenty
people with different schedules thought me how to have organizational and
communication skills. For Geothermal energy we performed a
soil resistivity project to map soil layers up to 12 meters deep. I
was also fortunate to learn about Energy economics. For this, in a small group we
performed a life cycle analysis comparing gas/electric hybrids to CNG/petrol
hybrids based on current prices and future projections. So far these classes
have given me first-hand experience with computationally intensive problems.
Although each of my projects was a unique experience, they were all essential
parts of my education. The small victories (and the unplanned setbacks) were
invaluable in teaching me how to plan and persevere.

For the future, I want to
understand the challenges we face as humans from something much bigger than us,
so I can do something to promote a more sustainable future. I am very
interested in atmospheric and soil sciences with a direction heading towards meteorology.
direction I would be interested as for a career is the further integration of
renewable systems into the current existing systems. As I saw in the news recently,
Costa Rica went 300 days on renewable energy, excluding vehicles. My hope would
be helping my country or any other to achieve the same goal.

To conclude, I will
continue to believe in the importance of preserving the environmental ecosystem.
This preservation especially drives me to study environmental sciences in hopes
to making a difference for the environment in the near future. My goal is to
use this is degree to broaden my academic horizons, increase independence, and
shape the career pursuits. We have the ability to save the planet in spite of
ourselves. I hope very much to complete your program at Columbia University so
that I will have a state-of-the art preparation in the far-reaching scheme of
issues involved in the protection of our environment. I want greatly to have
the privilege to devote my life to searching for creative solutions that will
serve the greater harmony between mankind, animals and the earth. I thank you
for considering my application to your program.

In color. Manganese is one of the main

In the national scenario, Cucurbita pepo L’s cultivitation emerges as an important vegetable in our economy. The vegetable has a relationship with the Cucurbitaceae family. It is like a cackrey, watermelon, melon and cucumber (Filgueira 2008). The agricultural economic amount develops from the unripe fruits commercialization. In this research, the fertilizer we will be using is Cucurbita pepo L. seeds for Solanum melongena cultivation. On its seed, there is mineral zinc. There will be more zinc when it is unshelled.  Vegetables such as pumpkin specifically the seeds contain phosphorus. It convert the nutrients into helpful components. It can also be found on some fertilizers.  Magnesium’s nutrients are needed for the growth of the plant. It is important for the plants to perform photosynthesis. Magnesium serves as the chlorophyll’s building block for the photosynthesis. It makes the leaves to appear green in color. Manganese is one of the main contributor to various biological systems, also photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen conversion on plants. For the plants growth, little amount of micronutrient is needed which we can be found in copper. Plants need protection from harm and damage which is the function of antioxidants. Carotenoids and Vitamin E are some examples of antioxidants. One of the example of antioxidants is the carotenoid. It is an organic pigment. It makes the color of the vegetable or plant yellow or orange. Dietary fibers can also be found in the seeds. There are four fatty acids present in pumpkin seeds. These are palmitic,stearic,oleic, and linoleic acids. This include 16.41% palmitic acid and 11.14% stearic acid which are the saturated fatty acids. It also include the unsaturated fatty acids which consists  of 18.14% oleic and 52.69% linoleic acid. Another fact with the seed is that it is rich in nutrients, has high content of protein and its micronutrients i s plenty. Total sugars,protein, fiber, fat and moisture levels are the chemical content of pumpkin seeds were 0.11%, 33.82%, 21.97%, 31.57% and 8.46%, respectively.