What is manual testing?Manual testing is a process of finding defects in the software manually. In this method, the testers will simulate end users to verify that all the features are working properly before software is released. All will be done manually so this method is really time-consuming. As it is done manually, it doesn’t require any knowledge of testing tools. Below are the stages of manual testing that a software will go through: Unit testing: Unit testing is the first stage in software testing. In this method, developer or tester uses the white box testing technique to test individual units and components of the software application to ensure that each unit of the software is working as expected. Integration testing: After unit testing, the units, components, and modules are integrated together and then integration testing is performed. The purpose of this testing is to validate the functionality and reliability of the modules after integrated. Black box testing technique is usually used at this stage, but in many cases, both Black and White testing method are combined together. System testing: In this stage, the entire system is completely integrated together to carry out system testing. Similarly, system testing is performed to ensure that the software is meeting its software requirements specifications (SRS). Black box testing is normally used at this stage. User acceptance testing: User acceptance testing is the final stage in software testing prior to release the product. After system testing, the software will be tested by actual users to make sure that the application has met all the requirements. If the software passes this stage, it means that end user has accepted it and it is ready to go live. What is automated testing?Automated testing is a method using an automation tool testing tool to write and execute test case suite on the software application, comparing the actual results to the expected behavior and creating test reports. Moreover, automated testing tool also provides record and playback feature which is especially useful for regression testing.When it comes to automated testing, it’s hard for testers to be good at it without programming skills. automated testing is like development, so tools might require customization. But over time, automated testing tool has matured to simplify the process of testing. There are a lot of codeless automated testing tools in the market providing the graphical environment so that testers can easily create test cases. automated testing helps eliminate tasks that are too time-consuming and laborious to be performed manually, plus automated tests can be run repeatedly once they have been created. In other words, automated testing helps increase effectiveness and efficiency of software testing. For the small companies, it’s hard to adopt test automation as it’s too expensive and difficult. The initial investments are considerable but in the long run, automated testing can help reduce time to market and testing effort, thus saving money.Why should you switch from manual testing to automation?Implementing automated testing can be challenging initially but the key benefits you are going to gain make it worthwhile.Time-savingBy implementing automated testing, it can help improve code quality and development velocity. When code changes are not causing errors, developers will have more time to focus on each sprint goal.Higher test coverageAutomated software testing can help you save time and increase test coverage. Lengthy tests are usually time-consuming and laborious to perform manually, this can be run with automated testing unattended on different computers with different configurations. automated testing also provides testers more time and effort to focus on more futures, thus leading to a higher quality of the application.Higher accuracyFor the manual testing, human errors are inevitable during repetitive and monotonous manual tests. When it is done with automated testing, it can help avoid the risks of human errors, increase accuracy and save time.How to successfully implement test automation.Change the mindsetImplementing automated testing can be challenging initially. It’s very important to secure the buy-in of development, operations, and QA. This cannot be the sole responsibility of testers. Everyone has to work together to build a solid foundation and establish realistic expectations.Test automation will lessen the manual testing burden, and automated tests can be run unattended, but this isn’t just about functional and regression testing through the user interface. By introducing automation earlier, you can cover the low level and introduce unit tests, as well as integration, API, database, and services testing. Starting automated testing in parallel with development can help to reduce dependency on the UI.For this to be successful, your processes will have to change to accommodate it. You may need to break down requirements further, introduce new coding practices, and tweak your design process. You’ll also need stable interfaces for both the back-end and the front-end to ensure minimal disruption to existing automated tests.Build a robust test automation foundationThere is no one-size-fits-all tool in test automation so you need to find the best tool for each type of automation then build a solid framework which pulls them all together.Testers and developers need to work together on building a solid framework and using the right process. If you find that most of the tests have to be rewritten after each sprint, your test automation foundation will need to be improved.Identify the right automation strategyIt is impossible to automate every test. You need to identify which tests need to be automated and figuring out which ones to automate is really challenging but it is an essential part of automated testing. Testers usually waste time trying to automate things that shouldn’t be automated. Others, on the contrary, waste time testing things manually that could be done more effectively with automated testing. Reviewing your test suite frequently to add tests worth automated and remove unsuitable ones.Starting with small investments and analyzing the results before scaling up will give testers more opportunities to try things, make mistakes, and design even better approaches.
According to a website called Teen Ink, there are approximately 2.7 million dogs and cats that are abandoned and killed every year. Although this tragedy happens, there are still many things that you can do to prevent this. You can help out by working at local animal shelters, give an animal more time to get adopted until getting euthanized, and many more gestures to prevent this problem in the world. Since there are many pets being abandoned, you can help out by working at local animal shelters in your area. According to an article named: Teenage Girl is Dogs’ Best Friend, from NewsHub, a 16 year old girl named Faye Carey spends most of her time re-homing abandoned dogs. It all started when she started working at Animal Control and she saw a dog who was there for a whole week, so she felt very sorry for it. So, she decided to create a Facebook page to help re-home animals because the text states, “She has set up a Facebook page, Animal Re-home Waikato, where she advertises puppies and dogs who need adopting.” Faye helped re-home dozens of abandoned pets find new homes! According to Huffpost’s article named: Animal Homelessness is a Community Challenge, if you don’t want to volunteer at a shelter, you can even donate items like used towels, blankets, toys, and treats to the shelters so that they can care for the pets better than they do already. Huffpost also says that you can publicize animals that need homes like Faye Carey from Teenage Girl is Dogs’ Best Friend, from NewsHub, host adoption events, learn about services that your local shelter offers, and offer to give a tour of the shelter to a group of young people. You can also help out by giving an animal more time to get adopted until getting euthanized. Euthanizing an animal means to kill them humanely. Usually this is for good reasons, like when there is no space in a shelter for it or when the shelter doesn’t have enough money to look after it. But, sometimes shelters give excuses such as the dog is not young or cute enough to get adopted because some shelters only care about the profit that they make. According to Teen Ink and the article, Animal Shelters: another chance at life or death, the author states that the time before a pet gets euthanized can vary a lot. Some shelters might give a pet 2 weeks before getting adopted, while others will only give them 3 days. This is how you can help by working at animal shelters, give an animal some more time until getting euthanized, and in many more ways you can be helpful and save abandoned animals and pets. If enough people get involved and take part in solving this issue, there might not be another pet on the streets for a long time.
Located at the awfully Japanese binding of Asia, the Philippines aboveboard ad-measurement home to over seven,000 islands, that aboveboard admeasurement busy by affable locals and affluence of authentication tribes. From aboriginal beaches and astonishing accustomed wonders to alluring celebrated sites and once-in-a-lifetime experiences, the Philippines backpack several agitate things to anticipate and do. verify the consecutive prime holidaymaker attractions aural the Philippines.Tubbataha ReefThe Tubbataha Beach aural the Sulu ocean may be an abyssal altar adequate because of the Tubbataha Beach National Abyssal Park. The beach is created of 2 atolls, North apricot beach, and South apricot reef, afar by an abysmal approach of almost 5 afar (8 km) wide. it’s become one of all the foremost admired dive sites aural the Philippines due to its apricot walls wherever the bank beach abbreviates ends giving acknowledgment to nice depths. The abyssal esplanade is accepted live-aboard diving excursions amid the months of Apr to June already the after-effects aboveboard admeasurement a lot of calm.San Agustin Church, ManilaLocated in Manila, an appointment to the San Agustin Abbey may be a should see. built-in 1589, this admirable abbey has survived seven earthquakes and 2 fires over the centuries and currently charcoal because of the oldest rock abbey in the Philippines. At a lot of entrance, their aboveboard admeasurement admirable carvings on the copse doors. aural the beautiful, Mexican-influenced autonomic is advised aural the anatomy of a Latin cross. The adorable beam was corrective aural the1800s by Italian artists, Giovanni Dibella and Cesare Alberoni.Mayan VolcanoRising over eight,000 anxiety (2,400 meters) college than the baptize level, Mayan Abundance is important for its actually balanced cone. guests will get amusement from the array of activities actuality like in habitation, climbing, hiking, bird acknowledgment and photography. An arresting atom aural which to adore Mayan Abundance is from the abutting Cagsawa ruins. Mayan is that a lot of alive abundances aural the Philippines, accepting erupted over forty-nine times aural the accomplished four hundred years. the foremost adverse access of Mayan occurred on Gregorian agenda ages one, 1814 bombarding the abutting cities with agitable rocks. The belfry and what’s larboard of the bizarre abbey that was destroyed by the 1814 access will still be seen.Puerto GaleraJust south of Manila is that the absorbing littoral city-limits of Puerto Galera, admirable for its adorable beaches, admirable diving spots and the advanced assortment of abyssal species. the foremost admired beaches aboveboard admeasurement White Beach and Sabang Beach, that additionally accommodate abutting looking, dining, nightlife, and architecture accommodation. Another admired allure is that the accustomed anchorage of Muelle Bay with its rows of retailers, restaurants, and bars. guests as well can go skin-dive to anticipate an amount of Asia’s best apricot reefs or dive a part of antecedent shipwrecks and abounding angle species.DonsolTourists as well can yield a address cruise on the Donsol beck through Schizophrenia batter and approach trees, and watch the night beam with abundant sparkling fireflies. Travelwideflights is offering you cheap flights to Philippine at cheapest rates. You don’t have to worry about time, date and destination. Everything is arranged according to your need and demand.
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Cloud computing is adopted by Small and Medium Businesses (SMBs) Selective large enterprises, government and certain developing countries across the globe. Largely cloud services are currently being utilized by SMBs, followed by certain large enterprises Cloud computing makes it easier for enterprises to scale their services which are increasingly reliant on accurate information – according to client demand. Since the computing resources are managed through software, they can be deployed very fast as new requirements arise. In fact, the goal of cloud computing is to scale resources up or down dynamically through software APIs depending on client load with minimal service provider interaction. Cloud computing also makes possible new classes of applications and delivers services that were not possible before. Examples include (a) mobile interactive applications that are location-, environment- and context-aware and that respond in real time to information provided by human users, nonhuman sensors (e.g. humidity and stress sensors within a shipping container) or even from independent information services (e.g. worldwide weather data)4 ; (b) parallel batch processing, that allows users to take advantage of huge amounts of processing power to analyze terabytes of data for relatively small periods of time, while programming abstractions like Google’s MapReduce or its opensource counterpart Hadoop makes the complex process of parallel execution of an application over hundreds of servers transparent to programmers; (c) business analytics that can use the vast amount of computer resources to understand customers, buying habits, supply chains and so on from voluminous amounts of data; and (d) extensions of compute-intensive desktop applications that can offload the data crunching to the cloud leaving only the rendering of the processed data at the front-end, with the availability of network bandwidth reducing the latency involved
imagine that you are a giraffe. You have a two-meter-long
neck, and you live in the grasslands of
the African savannah. Every day crowds of tourists pass by and photograph
you. But not only have the camera lenses separated you from the
person. Probably the biggest difference separating you and your giraffe friends
from people is that each decision you make has a momentary effect on your
life. For example:
When a giraffe is hungry, it goes to a tree and begins to chew
When a storm approaches the plain, it hides in dense thickets of
Barely seeing the lion, the giraffe flees.
day, most giraffe decisions (what to eat, where to sleep, when to flee, etc.)
has an immediate impact on his life. This animal lives in the midst of
momentary reactions, where life is closely related to the current moment.
Delayed Return Environment
now slightly change the plot and imagine ourselves as one of the tourists who
went on a safari. Unlike giraffes, people live in the so-called
environment of deferred reactions. The decisions that we take today may
not affect our current state. For example, if you do your job well, you
will receive a salary only after a few weeks. If you save money, then you
will have something to live in your old age. Many aspects of modern life
assume a delayed reward.
the giraffe is concerned about the resolution of its pressing problems, such as
saving from lions or subsistence, many of the problems that concern people are
related to the future. For example, while driving through a safari park, a
person might think: “I like a safari. It would be nice to find a park
keeper and see giraffes every day. Is not it time for me to change
jobs? Am I really in my place? ”
being in the midst of deferred reactions leads to chronic stress and anxiety. Why does this happen? This is due to the fact that our
brain is not designed to solve problems that have a delayed effect.
The discrepancy between the structure of the human brain and the
new environment in which we find ourselves leads to chronic stresses and a
constant sense of anxiety. Within the last 100 years,
we’ve gone from a very simple way of life to a much more complicated system. We
now have cars, television, computers, internet, mobile, and everything in
between! All the things that we encounter in our lives today have come about
within a very short time frame.
In the scope of evolution, 100 years is just a blip in time. It
took us thousands of years to evolve into hunting, gathering and eventually farming humans and last 100 years of
technology evolution is just a blip in time. Therefore our brains are
still using the same processes from thousands of years ago.
We always worry about bank, home, money, car and many future
problems but our brain can rarely solve this problem.
What to do with it
The first thing you can do is measurement. You cannot be sure that
after graduating from high school, we will have a prestigious job, but you can
calculate how many companies you have applied for an internship. You cannot be sure that when you will meet your love,
but we can pay attention to how many people you introduced yourself.
Rather than worrying about tomorrow
focus on present situations and making small decisions will reduce anxiety.
Pox are synthesized by CROP and this provides access to block copolymers by the sequential addition of 2-oxazoline monomers. This concept was applied to the synthesis of amphiphilic systems with tailored composition of the blocks to tune their properties and self-assembly. the vast variety of initiators, terminating agents and 2-oxazoline monomers for the CROP allows to specifically introduce functional groups which can be used post polymerization for the attachment and polymerization of functional groups and polymers, respectively.
Typically, MeOx, EtOx and iPrOx are employed as hydrophilic block forming monomers while long aliphatic chain or aromatic monomers such as 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline (NonOx) and 2-phenyl-2-oxazoline (PhOx) are prominent 2-oxazolines which are used for the formation of the hydrophobic block. Block coPOx consisting of MeOx and 2-butyl-2-oxazoline (ButOx), 2-octyl-2-oxazoline (OctOx) and PhOx blocks were studied and, observed different morphologies depending on the composition and type of block coPOx. Interaction tests with human serum albumin (HSA) revealed that the protein mainly adsorbs at the hydrophilic shell of the assemblies. Tiller and coworkers prepared PMeOx-b-PPhOx-b-PMeOx which formed three different morphologies upon dissolution in aqueous media; unimolecular micelles, micellar aggregates and stable polymersomes. Acidic hydrolysis of PMeOx-b-PPhOx was found to cleave methyl side chains more selectively than in PMeOx-grad-PPhOx. The hydrolyzed block copolymer PEI-b-PPhOx were found to be thermo- and pH-responsive forming spherical micelles in acidic conditions at room and elevated temperature whereas micelles were only observed in water at elevated temperatures. In a recent study Hiller, Weberskirch and coworkers revealed new insights in the temperature dependent stability (between 20 and 80 C) of amphiphilic diblock coPOx composed of a hydrophilic PMeOx block and either 2-pentyl, 2-heptyl or 2-nonyl-2oxazoline as the hydrophobic block.
: – As the powers of modern Engineering grow by the day, Exoskeletons are fast
becoming an exciting field of research & innovation. The capabilities are
immense, and we plan to implement a few of them. Our aim is to build an
Exoskeleton, that can help our soldiers in lifting heavy objects, help in movement in adverse condition, act as
a bulletproof vest under firing breakouts. The exoskeleton can also behave as a
gas mask in case the soldier is in some area affected by some poisonous gas. We
also plan to use ElectroCardioGraphy to
analyse the mental state of the concerned soldier, and alert in case he is
found to be drowsy or inattentive. The exoskeleton has a self-powering system,
which gives it autonomous power, eliminating the requirements of any external
power source. Also, it will be light weight & easy to remove, in case it is
not needed or stops working due to adverse conditions. The idea is to make a bilateral exoskeleton having
six degrees of freedom. Using closed loop control systems, the performance of
the exoskeleton can also be checked & corrected in case it is not optimal
& efficient. At the areas where human body has joints for movement, we are
planning to use parallel manipulators, which will give the joints the freedom
to move in multiple directions & orientations. An admittance control
strategy allows the exoskeleton to capture the user’s movements during combat
training & implement the same in real battle & survival conditions. In
future, the concepts of artificial intelligence & augmented reality can be
explored to make the exoskeleton more productive & smart, ultimately
proving to be a great weapon in battle & helping hand in adverse
is your motivation behind participation?
came to know about the competition from the college. The theme of the
competition fascinated us a lot and our dream to contribute to nation through
our knowledge came true with the organisation of this competition. It was one
of the major and driving motivations to participate in the event.
are your specialized knowledge and expertise?
team comprise of four members. Two of us are expertise in electrical
engineering and other two in mechanical engineering with computer
specialisation. We all possess knowledge about SoftWares like Ardunio IDE,
Eagle, Android studio, AutoCad, Circuit Maker,
participation/awards/recognition if any
as team members have participated in Smart India Hackathon 2017 ( Finalists).
of the members have participated individually in following competition as
IEEE Region 10
Humanitarian Technology Conference, 2016 organised by Texas Instrument
are you planning to exhibit?
are planning to exhibit Scientific paper with a poster and simulation.We may
also present mock up model of our idea.
Powered exoskeletons (hereafter referred as robotic exoskeletons or just
exoskeletons) are wearable robots attached to subject’s limbs, in order to
replace or enhance their movements. They should be compliant with the user’s
movements and deliver at least part of the power necessary to accomplish the
For decades engineers and scientists have dreamed to brought to real
life an exoskeleton that could boost human strength, turning an ordinary person
into a “superhuman”. With the current miniaturized and powerful computer and
communication system, it is now possible to develop advanced control
architectures. New technology also created small and powerful actuators that
can be embedded in portable devices. New power sources have been investigated
and are now making possible to increase the autonomy of untethered devices. All
these advances in technology are becoming real the dream of bringing to life
the robotics exoskeletons.
Military exoskeletons are intended to be used by soldiers in the
battlefield or in rescue activities. They are aimed to augment the strength and
endurance of soldiers, making possible for them to carry heavy loads, walking
longer distances, etc.
2.1 Mechanical Design
The exoskeleton design is lightweight, i.e. about 9 kg. It is conceived
as a bilateral wearable device with six DoF (Degrees of Freedom), in which hip,
knee and ankle are powered joints. The gait cadence is expected to reach up to
0.5 m/s (1.8 km/h). Aluminum and stainless steel are primarily used in
the mechanical structure to account for mechanical resistance and reduced
weight. For further decrement of weight carbon steel can also be used. The
exoskeleton frame has bilateral uprights for the thigh and the shank, hinged
hip, knee and ankles and articulated footplates (distally) and waist area
To support the rotating components of the electric joint, there are
three groups of bearings:
(i) Main joint bearings. These bearings provide the relative rotation
between the joint’s proximal and distal links. They support significant
off-axis moments, but operate at very low speeds. Two angular contact bearings
create a compact, high-moment-capacity bearing set. Since they are constrained
as a pair, the races of an identical bearing provide a very precise spacer to
prevent uneven loading of the two bearings.
(ii) Motor shaft bearings. While these bearings do not see much loading,
they need to operate at high speeds.
(iii) Torque link bearings. Due to the unique torque sensing method
implemented the additional torque link also needs to be supported on bearings.
This link is low speed and does not see any large off-axis moments; therefore,
a single X-contact bearing supports the torque link
The electric exoskeleton joints are designed to be cooled via a liquid
cooling channel built into the mechanical structure as close as possible to the
motor stator’s steel structure. When necessary, coolant is pumped into each
joint, around the hot motor and then up to a radiator to cool it back down.
DC motors meet the criteria of necessary power with a compact and
portable solution for wearable devices. Within the DC motors category,
brushless motors offer several advantages for wearable devices, including
higher efficiency, more torque density, increased reliability, reduced noise,
longer lifetime and reduction of electromagnetic interference. Based on these
important characteristics, brushless DC motors were selected. Moreover, the
selected motors are flat type. This characteristic brings the possibility of placing
the motors coaxially with the joints and maintaining a small volume on the side
of the leg.
A 90 W DC motor (Maxon EC90-90W) is used in both hip joints. This motor has
a rated voltage of 24 VDC and nominal torque of 390 mNm.
POWER DRIVE FOR EXOSKELETON
problems need to be overcome if we are to fully realise this technology. Chief
amongst these areas is the power source. Currently, there is no way of
providing power to these suits for extended periods of time. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion
offers a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries
for long duration of hours. Beside the traditional battery supply, we will incorporate
following in our model:
we walk, we generate most of the power from the hip when we push off. Then, as
the leg swings forward, the small muscles in our knees and elsewhere rest
before making sure our feet hit the ground at the desired spot. That
free-swinging technique saves energy. It can be incorporated it into their
Heat generated in exoskeleton can be used to
create charges and convert to electricity to supply to suit via thermoelectric
thermoelectric energy conversion is completed largely through the use of the
Seebeck Effect. Thermoelectric devices generate energy when there is a
difference between the heated surface and the environment. Qualitatively,
more electricity would be generated by a device if used in a colder
of limited energy and the large weight of batteries poses the most critical problem
for exoskeleton having high electricity demand. To overcome this problem,
energy can be extracted from the mechanical energy from the vertical movement
of the load during walking and converts it to electricity for powering device. the
vertical movement of a heavy load in the gravitational field during walking
represents a heretofore untapped source of mechanical energy and a potential
opportunity to generate substantial levels of
walking, a person moves like an inverted pendulum (4, 5, 9): One foot is put
down and then the body vaults over it, causing the hip to move up and down by 4
to 7 cm. Thus, if one is carrying a load in a backpack, because it is fixed to
the body, it has to go up and down the same vertical distance. In the case of a
36-kg load, 18 J of mechanical energy transfer (or work) accompanies each step
(assuming 5 cm displacement), and at two steps s-1this is equivalent
to 35 W.
All sensors are connected to small custom-made electronic boards located
on each joint. This approach minimizes the amount of wires, cables and
connections in the exoskeleton. A second CAN bus connects all six joints to the
embedded computer that controls the exoskeleton.
The boards, here called JointCAN, contain all the circuitry for the
analog filters for each joint sensor and also the amplifiers for the strain
gauges. After filtering and amplifying, the signals are digitalized by a DSP
microcontroller and sent to the CAN bus.
The microcontroller used in the JointCAN boards is a Microchip
DsPIC30F4013. It works at 16 MHz of clock and digitalizes the analog sensors
input with 12 bits.
An ecg sensor
will be installed in the exoskeleton so as to monitor the health and awareness
of the soldier. This sensor will send data collected with the help of Bluetooth
and the complete information will be saved on the cloud of the department. If
the heartbeats fall below a particular level, medical level will be sent
A bullet proof
vest is incorporated in our exoskeleton. The
suits will be made with a “liquid body armor”
that transforms into solid within milliseconds when a magnetic field or an
electric current is applied through the material. The material
can be turned from liquid to solid (or vice versa) in 1/10th of a second. A
Polish company, Moratex, is working on a similar kind of liquid body armor, using a non-Newtonian
liquid called Shear-Thickening Fluid
(STF). So this concept can be adopted by us too.
armour will be completely controlled by mind waves so as to decrease the pyysical
stress. In order to control the exoskeleton, the soldiers’ helmet will be
covered in small electrodes that cling to their scalps. The skullcaps are the
tools that connect the subject’s brain to the exoskeleton and are commonly used
(EEGs) — a method of recording
electrical activity by placing conductive materials on the scalp (the brain
waves are then plotted on a chart, much like heart rate). the EEG cap is used to
pick up very particular brain signals — those created by what the researchers
call steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs).
The exoskeleton is equipped with two types of sensors: kinematic and
Kinematics sensors are used for measuring angular position, velocity and
acceleration; kinetic sensors measure the force of interaction between user’s
limb and exoskeleton. Moreover sensors like EEG sensor, ECG sensors, heat
sensor etc are also used.
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UC security mechanisms and identify and briefly describing several that Boeing should have in place to ensure the privacy and integrity.vUCS offers a correspondence game plan improved to address the essentials of dynamic associations using the latest IP advancement. Not at all like a standard private branch exchange (PBX), associations don’t need to purchase or present extraordinary rigging in light of the way that Virtual Unified Communication courses of action are basically programming based. openUC (now called Uniteme) – eZuce’s pioneer openUC organize is a whole bound together trades programming game plan that is definitely not hard to pass on and direct and can scale from modest bunches to a colossal number of end-customers. openUC is an open programming stage with each one of the features one would expect in an endeavor class united correspondences plan. The stage supports any end-customer device while passing on fiery helpfulness and versatile cloud/on-begin sending decisions. Using a Hosted game plan routinely raises security concerns. Do we totally trust and rely on an open system? Clearly not! The openUC course of action relies upon a totally SIP go-between server, suggesting that voice acting will be End-to-End, in this way encryption will be End-to-End. There are three courses of action that we can use to guarantee our most sensitive voice movement: IPSec – Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a tradition suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) correspondences by approving and scrambling each IP heap of a correspondence session. TLS – Transport Layer Security (RFC 2246) continues running at Layer 4 tradition over TCP (see DTLS for UDP). There are the two central focuses and disservices related with TLS. SRTP/ZRTP – The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (or SRTP) portrays a profile of RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol-RFC 3711), foreseen that would give encryption, message confirmation and uprightness, and replay insurance to the RTP information in both unicast and multicast applications.To what extent do the UC benefits experienced by Boeing mirror those of other firms that have deployed UC capabilities over converged IP networks?At the point when this impelled mastermind is created, AT&T will have the ability to offer wide area compose organizations, voice organizations, sound conferencing, managed Internet organization and remote voice and data organizations. Boeing works a flight support center at Port San Antonio, the site of the past Kelly Air Force Base. The association’s mechanics have performed support and changes manage U.S. Aeronautics based military planes in San Antonio since 1998. Boeing’s San Antonio operations will serve the satisfaction put for the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner business plane once planes begin getting off the age line in Everett, Wash. The Boeing Aerospace Support Center will moreover be fused into the AT&T contract. Ellen Gargiulo, AT&T’s Signature Client Group VP, says that Boeing’s huge need is to move from a multicarrier area into a single conveyor system to pass on their inside IP compose, which will fuse LAN and WAN organizations, wireline and remote voice organizations, and besides solid conferencing. Microsoft has moved a fixed up office specific instrument called Lync. The item is proposed to supplant using the phone and truly bantering with people as the acknowledged techniques for correspondence in the workplace. Lync unites voice calls, messaging, video conferencing and web talk into a lone package and can even join to a Kinect-arranged Xbox 360, which is all the reason we need to get an entertainments bolster presented in the boardroom. The item, which used to be called Office Communications Server, is tied in personally with Microsoft’s workplace applications Office, SharePoint, and Exchange. Microsoft says that Shell, Boeing, and Nikon have quite recently started uncovering the development of their working environments and that the Redmond association’s own Lync orchestrate is saving it $250 million a year. Microsoft is at the present time guaranteeing telephone structures and other gear which will work with Lync, which takes off to 150 countries on December first. To date, Boeing has not implemented the full range of capabilities available through UC systems. If you were the CIO at Boeing, what additional UC capabilities would you implement? What benefits would you expect Boeing to derive from deploying these capabilities?Business phone systems and trades plans have gained some astounding ground in the earlier decade, particularly with the move towards IP-based courses of action offering UC features. As more associations plan to move a long way from their old select phone systems towards such courses of action, the enthusiasm for Unified Communications (UC) features has created. As associations and affiliations plan to invigorate their correspondences courses of action, Unified Communications can expect a fundamental part in boosting gainfulness and capability by offering essential flexibility, boosting composed exertion and saving agents’ possibility. 1. Enjoy Greater Mobility Adaptability in the workplace has transformed into an unyieldingly basic subject in late years. In an examination from InformationWeek the need to make a more compact workforce was referred to as the second most unmistakable reason behind getting UC. UC engages more significant flexibility in different ways, including the one number thought and the course of action of softphones. Softphones are another key segment of UC courses of action which enable adaptability. Softphones are modifying applications which allow voice and video bring to be made over the web. 2. The cost-cutting target BDS anticipated that would diminish the TCO of its SANs, accumulating organization, and frameworks organization for neighborhood and remote regions. In like manner, it anticipated that would assemble arrange spryness, improve flexibility, and support IT targets of giving customer and companions bunches organizations and resources speedier and less complex. Boeing considered its decisions carefully before settling on its choice. “Associations that send game plans from particular vendors, or use checks like InfiniBand, find that the primary method to advance is to have an absolutely homogenous condition. This infers they hazard simply having the ability to work with a single vendor, which quells flexibility and makes them fragile when shippers raise costs,” says Kuehn. Since sending its first Cisco Fiber Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) use in 2010, BDS has widened its usage of FCoE and is by and by 100 percent multihop FCoE. BDS utilize the unrivaled, high-thickness Cisco Nexus 7000 F-plan Ethernet switches as its inside switches and Cisco Nexus 5000 switches as access switches. “With the Cisco OS, summons for managing the IP and FC sides of the house are in a general sense the same as,” Kuehn says. “This is essential since people with the scopes of capacities to regulate the two assignments freely are extraordinarily remarkable and to a great degree exorbitant. Regardless, we would now have the capacity to use our present staff to supervise both IP and FCoE resources quickly and adequately, growing their impetus inside the association.” Cisco Unified Communications (UC) makes an assembled workspace by combining IP correspondences and encouraged effort things and applications into a solitary, joined structure. Without joined correspondences, assorted voice, video, information, and their applications can’t satisfy their potential and are far less sensible than they could be. The outcome is correspondences multifaceted nature, wastefulness, data over-inconvenience, and cheated correspondences. These inconveniences concede choices, back off strategy, and decrease capability over the undertaking. WebRTC is an unmistakable preferred standpoint for Unified Communications, offering less troublesome and more affordable consistent exchanges options. WebRTC brings most of the plusses of enormous business video – multi-entrusting and facilitated exertion, less go for up close and personal social events – without the costly establishment and HR hypothesis. By removing the necessity for a client, WebRTC will in like manner push expensive select UC dealers from the market. WebRTC goes past VoIP and web conferencing, offering snap to-call limits, as saw with Amazon’s Mayday get. With just a solitary tick webpage visitors can impact a free voice or video to call direct to a business through the web program. Right when a visitor taps on the embedded call get in a site, a VoIP call will be made and can be immediately answered by the perfect individual inside the business. Therefore purchaser dependability will increase nearby arrangements and productivity. Conclusion:Associations which have executed the latest UC game plans can achieve upgraded gainfulness and capability supports by bestowing more effectively inside and remotely with their partners and customers. With features, for instance, closeness, softphones, and video conferencing, delegates can use their chance more gainfully and talk with their accomplices and customers more easily. UC plans are set to twist up evidently dynamically complex with the improvement in the gathering of WebRTC advancement. Before executing a UC course of action associations should consider their general correspondences technique. A corporate UC game plan is a wander for the future-a splendid dealer will give a totally valuable, secure exchanges structure which will assemble productivity and show up.
Introduction In this assignment I will be investigating the effects that the internal and external environment has on a large company trading and operating in the EU (Marks and Spencer’s) The company Marks and Spencer’s were founded in 1884 by a man called Michael Marks in Leeds when he became partners with Thomas spencer the company became “Marks and Spencer’s” in 1894. Their main focus was to sell high quality products from Britain and closely monitored their suppliers to guarantee that their goods were of a high quality. Now they are a multinational private limited company with over 700 storefronts worldwide. Internal environment Swot analysis Marks and spencer’s has many strengths as a multinational retailer. One of the is that they have built a strong reputation with consumers as a friendly, convenient and high-quality retailer, one way that they have done this is by utilising a “no quibble return” policy, this means that any of their products that have been purchased can be returned within 30 days for a refund or trade for another product with the equivalent value, however the product has to be in its original condition and in its packaging. This helped build up their reputation because consumers like a company with a good return policy in case they don’t like the product when they get home etc, so they would rather go to a store with a good return policy than with a bad one because it’s more convenient and reliable. Another strength is that they also have a reputation for high quality products that are also sourced from inside the UK, this encourages customers because they like to know that their products are going to last and not have faults within them, however this means that their products are going to cost more money than products from a company known to make low quality products such as Primark, but people who can afford to shop at marks and spencer’s will obviously prefer their high quality products over a lower quality retailer, so marks and spencer’s appeal to people in the middle to upper class in general due to their high quality but more a bit more expensive products. They also offer a very wide range of products in their stores so they appeal to a wider variety of people so of course they will get more customers shopping at their stores than a shop with a narrower range. They have over 700 storefronts worldwide which obviously maximises profit because the more stores that are open the more likely people are to shop there due to convenience and the wide range of products they offer and their relatively reasonable prices relating to their high-quality and hand made products. Marks and spencer’s also has weaknesses as a retailer, a weakness of theirs is that their products aren’t seen as cool and trendy to people anymore, consumers would rather buy more expensive designer brands such as ‘Stone Island’ because it’s trendy and places them higher in the social rankings because it’s sought after, expensive and seen as trendy, especially within young people, to improve this weakness they could redesign their clothes, market them as designer and target their advertising more towards young people so they can build their reputation as a trendy brand again, they don’t really need to advertise for the older generation because they already buy their products because they don’t care about their clothes brands and how they look as much as the younger generation. Marks and spencer’s still manually manufacture their products so this increases the product prices to make that needed mark up on products, whereas other companies started using robots on assembly lines, this means their working costs go down and the efficiency that their products are being made at increases, so the prices of their products will be less than companies that make their products by hand such as marks and spencer’s, to improve this weakness they could use robot on assembly lines to increase their efficiency at which they are making products and lower production costs, on the other hand this could slightly break down their reputation as a retailer that has high quality and handmade products because they replaced the humans with robots, this could cause some customers to shop elsewhere that uses handmade products. Organisational structure & corporate culture Marks and spencer’s used to use a tall hierarchal structure within their company but because there are several layers of management and the structure is very narrow It decreases the amount of control that the managers have. In recent years however, marks and spencer’s have changed to a flatter, more democratic structure because in the last few years they have been trying to improve customer service and keep innovation level optimal, but the tall hierarchal structure doesn’t compliment their goals of improving innovation, so they made their organisational structure flatter and more democratic so they boost employee morale and innovation. The corporate culture in marks and spencer’s is fairly employee friendly since the recent change in organisational structure because they have started to focus on keeping the customers and employee’s happy which boosts sales and innovation, and both of those factors increase sales. “Culture begins with shared values, which then produce norms that govern behaviour.” (Mullins, 2010) Page BreakExternal environment An opportunity that Marks and Spencer’s could capitalise on is that they could further increase their brand awareness by opening more storefronts in new countries such as japan, japan would be ideal for Marks and Spencer’s because it has the third biggest economy in the entire world, because Marks and Spencer’s offers high quality products at a bit higher price it would be good for japan because people there can afford to regularly buy products from there whereas they tried to open stores in china but they had to be closed down because they weren’t making enough money, this is due to the high poverty levels in china even though it’s the second biggest economy in the world the lower classes are mostly living in poverty so people couldn’t afford their fairly expensive products and had to go to a shop which sells cheaper but worse quality products. Another opportunity for M&S is to launch a lower price line of clothing and other products, this could encourage people from a lower economic background to shop there in the long term so they could increase their consumer base and slightly dispose of their reputation of a retailer that only caters for rich or elderly people, which in itself could also encourage more people to shop there. A threat that Marks and Spencer’s are faced with is that other retailers such as Aldi sell their products for a lower price. This could attract more customers to Aldi and potentially lower the profit that Marks and Spencer’s make through sales, to face this issue they could lower their prices on some products so more people are willing to shop at Marks and Spencer’s and reclaim sales from retailers with low price products. Another threat to marks and spencer’s is that it only utilises big stores whereas other supermarkets such as Tesco also have little shops for convenience such as Tesco express, this helps them maximise profit because people go there for little things that they don’t want have to go all the way to the supermarket to get e.g.: milk. Marks and spencer’s are losing out on profit by not opening these little shopfronts and can potentially harm their opportunities in the future. Pestle analysis Some political implications on marks and spencer’s is that it used to be able to source it’s products from Europe tax and tariff free, however due to Brexit all businesses in the uk have to pay taxes and tariffs on goods imported from Europe, this will cause marks and spencer’s to make less profit on their products because they now have to pay more money to source high quality products from outside of the UK, Brexit will also make it harder for marks and spencer’s to find workers, because people now have to have a visa to be in the uk whereas before Brexit they didn’t have to, this can limit their options to workers, because people who would potentially work there can’t because they can’t get a visa. Some economic impacts on marks and spencer’s is that other supermarkets rely on cheaper pricing, the recent Brexit referendum caused the value of the pound to drop to its lowest point in 31 years, this made people become more money conscious towards the products they are buying so the supermarkets that use lower prices to attract customers benefitted from it because more people shopped there instead of the more expensive marks and spencer’s, however marks and spencer’s focused on promoting high quality goods which made up for their more expensive products and helped their reputation, this attracted more customers so they maximise the units sold and profits. Social impacts on the company is that its seen as a non-trendy store to the younger generations, this makes them a lot less likely to shop there which isolates almost a whole market segment, if marks and spencer’s stocked clothes currently trending such as “champion” or “a bathing ape” people of the younger generation are much more likely to shop there and develop a loyalty to shop there often after that, the younger generations also have a lot less disposable income than before due to rising university fees or rising rent rates, this causes them to have to shop at cheaper supermarkets so marks and spencers loses out on sales to the younger generation. Their reputation has been damaged recently by claims that they have used child labour in their factories in Indonesia, this has prompted many customers to boycott marks and spencer’s until they stop using such cruel and inhumane ways of producing their goods, they could use robots on their assembly lines instead of children, this would be more expensive at the start but more price efficient in the long term, it would also help repair their reputation as a retailer because they stopped using children for labour so more customers would start coming back to their stores to shop. A technological impact on marks and spencer’s is that they still use manual labour to manufacture their products (such as the child labour scandal) to improve this as I said in the social impacts section, they could use robots instead of humans in their factories, they are more expensive but a lot more reliable and faster, so the cost of the robots would be made up by the units per hour made compared to if humans were doing it. Recently there have been multiple hacks on websites where personal details (credit card details etc) of millions of people with an account on those websites have been released by hackers to the dark web where people clone their cards or take money from their bank accounts, so they could improve their web security people are less reluctant to shop online at their shop and will quell their fears about hackers a little bit, because people will start to shop online more this means that marks and spencer’s units sold will improve so profit will too. A legal impact on Marks and Spencer’s is that they got into a financial altercation with the landlords of the Frascati shopping centre in Dublin, it has gone to the high court and marks and spencer’s hopes that the case is fast tracked to the commercial part of the court that deals with multimillion disputes, the impact this has on marks and spencer’s is that they could become blacklisted by the other big landlords and that can stop them from opening new stores, so they can’t make as much profit as they could if they continued opening stores. It will also be very expensive for the legal fees for the court case. Enviromental impacts on marks and spencer’s is that there is increased pressure recently for supermarket chains to become more environmentally friendly with laws being passed such as the 5p bag law in an effort for all chains to become more environmentally friendly and reduce their carbon footprint, customers are also becoming more environmentally aware and are more inclined to shop at a store which has a reduced carbon footprint and does their part to help the environment. This is good for Marks and Spencer’s because in recent years they have become a lot more environmentally friendly, they have become completely carbon neutral and have significantly boosted the sales of their organic products, however they weren’t able to meet their target of tripling the sales of their organic products, this attracts customers that are conscious of the environment because they want to shop at a store that helps the environment, not destroys it. this is what gives marks and spencer’s a competitive edge over the other supermarkets, it’s unique selling point is that it has a heavy focus on preserving and helping the environment whereas other supermarket chains don’t care about it as much and just focus on solely making profit which makes marks and spencer’s more ethical than Asda for example. They have a lot of corporate social responsibility which can protect the company’s best interests in the future and it attracts more customers that care about the environment. Porters five forces analysis The threat of new entrants in this market is fairly small because it’s an oligopolistic market, filled with very well-established companies, the smaller companies normally don’t grow to the size of the big companies in this market because all the other big companies buy them out before they grow big enough to become a major player, Tesco in particular is notorious for buying out its smaller competition for sums of money that they can’t refuse so then Tesco buy them out and normally shut the business down so they pose no threat in the future. The threat of new entrants Is even smaller for what marks and spencer’s offer (high quality but expensive products) because the smaller businesses that are trying to break into the market aren’t going to be able to afford high quality products like marks and spencer’s. The smaller businesses wouldn’t be able to benefit from economies of scale either because they wouldn’t be buying in huge amounts lie the bigger supermarkets, this puts them at another disadvantage. The threat of substitutes for marks and spencer’s is quite high because their products are sold at a higher price than all the other retailers, this could push people to buy the cheaper substitutes from other retailers because they can’t afford the real marks and spencer’s products, The bargaining power of customers is quite small with marks and spencer’s, this is because the people who shop there are mostly very loyal to marks and spencer’s as a brand so they aren’t very price sensitive, even if marks and spencer’s raised the prices of their products the customers would most likely keep shopping there regardless of price Suppliers have quite a lot of bargaining power with marks and spencer’s, this is because marks and spencer’s focus on delivering high quality products to their customers, and not many suppliers sell the high-quality materials that marks and spencer’s want so marks and spencer’s have no choice but to pay the prices they demand.