1. to help Abina understand the phrase. Magistrate

1. Magistrate Melton asks Abina Mansah several questions to assess whether she was a slave previously. Melton asks if Abina if she was made to work against her wishes.  Though, Abina fails to understand the meaning of this phrase in the first instance. Mr. Davis comes to intervention so as to help Abina understand the phrase. Magistrate Melton asks these questions since he heard that Abina had pleaded with Mr. Davis to assist her in arresting Mr. Eccaddo who had introduced her to slavery.3. People from the past can be just as important in making contributions to history without holding the title of important political, social, or military leader. Abina Mansah is a great example of one of these people. Bringing to light slavery and feminine injustice, which not many men or other women were doing at the time. Her experiences and story of perseverance through numerous obstacles are valuable to learn and grow from in a deeper way with our outside and unbiased perspective.5. Abina did what many enslaved and underprivileged people would like to do, regain independence and find justice for their injustices. She asked an important question about whether or not she was free, “Am I free?”, which would be determined. From an early age she was taken from her family, sold into slavery, and unwillingly made to carry large loads. Abina sought to find control of her life again through a colonial court. She embarks on a legal campaign to gain self-sufficiency apart from obligations to employer and government. 7. The graphic story of Abina is the product of a ‘staircases’ of voices. Moreover, the voices presented in this story are Abian, Melton, Eddoo, Davis and Brew. Here, I will focus more on two characters: Abina and Melton. Abina is revealed as the most significant voice in this story. Since from her tender years, she has grown to be a woman that stands up to an important man, Eddoo despite being a woman violated her rights. Abina is very courageous, but also inexperienced in understanding the terminology ‘slave’, but she does comprehend not possessing the self-control over herself. Abina was really at the forefront fighting for the subject of feminine justice.Melton, Devis, and Brew are addressed as the other voices in the story. Melton is undeniably the voice of the Europeans. He had a deep comprehension of African Culture, though his role is to implement the description of slavery. Moreover it becomes apparent he has very little history of struggle in life and has no experience of how it feels to have no rights. Abina takes the stance that it is the right of each and every child to read of the enlightenment philosophies which are free will and work. 9. Prior to the transcript Getz acknowledges that he and Clarke have led to an historicization placed in the setting of the time and place in which it is now set. Nonetheless, there are inquiries that necessitate being asked, and he summarizes up the challenge he and Clarke endured: Like numerous people who interpret the past, we have attempted to build an impression that is reasonable accurate, authentic to the hurdles and point of views of the characters presented and significant to the audience. How can you, the audience, believe in the work we have produced.11. The questions that the Magistrate Melton asks Abina eases the meaning of the concept of slavery in this story. At first, Abina fails terribly to understand the meaning of the questions. Surprisingly, Mr. Davis, her personal attorney helps her to comprehend the story. In this scene, we view that language and terms are instrumental when trying to describe anything. Nonetheless, the phrases the men use in their inquiries easily summons on the brains of the men and the audience, an image of the difference between a free individual and a slave. As a result of this, Abina is incapable of comprehending the men, the words, and phrases she uses create confusion. Additionally, this confusion is significant in addressing the notion of slavery.  In the contemporary world, the British government banned slavery in the colony, though the use of women as subjects has risen drastically. In addition, this bestowed more shoulders on the enslaved to pass through painful procedures when seeking freedom, hence creating an impression that freedom is difficult to attain. As expounded, this information makes it hard for the audience to get a deep comprehension of what makes a human, a slave.13. Abina was previously a slave to the Asante region in West Africa. After some time she was taken to the coastal area of Salt Pond, here Yowawhah decided he wanted to sell her to a affluent palm oil dealer known as Quamina Eddoo. It is undisputable that the power that Quamina Eddoo helped him to be crowned as one of the “important men.”  Eddoo rewards her sister, Eccoah with Abina who goes to work alongside other slaves that were in the age groups of 9 to 13 years. Eddoo rewards a male relative of their extended family with Abina as his wife. From this setback, Abina reaches to the conclusion that deserting the place and live in the Cape Coast as the best option.15. It is correct that Abina approaches Davis out of the blue. Previously, Davis was employed as a translator at a court. In my opinion, these two persons had no any relationship with each other. Abina worked as a maid in the household of the Interpreter. Unfortunately, Abina appears to have seen Eddoo in town. Abina quickly hurries to convince Davis that he should assist her to put Eddoo behind bars. Davis agrees to assist Abina in the court system. Later, Davis visits the then judicial judge, William Melton. Melton agitates that Davis is putting him in a tough situation since the British depend on these important men to generate palm oil for them and that there are not ready for a legal tussle with them.17. The main argument West Africans backed up the British civilizing and likely rule is due to the urge to abolish slavery and more personal rights and liberation. The West Africans were not subjected to the way of life of the white people. In the nick of time, they viewed that they could live and therefore end slavery. Nonetheless, they were under the impression that the British could assist them to become free men and obtain the better education and probably travel around the globe.It is undeniable that the West Africans were deceived into believing that the British rule and “civilization” would be prosperity to them. Sooner than later they came to understand that the British were only economically concerned of the geographical region. The British also convinced the West Africans that the British “civilization” would bring prosperity and benefits to the region and with that the Africans vaulted on the trend. The persuasion of “uncivilized” peoples that a European powerhouse can assist them via religion and education. It is a sorrowful tale that repeats itself, regrettably.19. The author and the illustrator search for presumptions and figurative language to read the transcript of Abina’s testimony against the grain. Her testimony is unearthed in the dusty documentations by Trevor Getz and, via Liz Clarke’s illustrations, nurtures as a graphic history read by humans around the globe. In this mode, the audience takes a vigorous part in the story besides the illustrator, the author, and Abina.21. Abina’s appeal to an unfavorable courtroom paints itself as both remarkable and illustrative of the struggles of everyday people and a better life throughout human history. Moreover, the significant men in the courtroom may not have eavesdropped to her, but her words were chronicled so that we hear them in the contemporary world. This book tries to contextualize the readers for their courageous actions and bold declarations all contextualized for application in the classroom for the knowledge of the audience.26. The paramount importance of cloths and beads in regards to social relationships cannot be ignored. The rewarding of cloths and beads to another person depicted a sense of ownership. For instance when the husband decided to give a cloth to his wife, it implied that the wife was a property of the husband. Therefore, the women mainly in the marketplaces defied all odds so as to purchase their own clothing to signify ownership. In the novel, we see that Tando bought some of the clothing for her wife and this reflected ownership. Surprisingly, it was next to impossible to go against these customs. When Abina breaks another person’s beads, it epitomized that she was no longer her husband’s asset.27. I feel that it would be important to study Abina’s heritage so as to understand the graphic story. That is, heritage would assist to shed more light on the reader on the facial expressions and envision some of the “important men” having a conversation with her – literally and figuratively. It was very deliberate of the author to highlight Abina’s story in numerous forms since it enables each person to understand the story.

Globalisation of the world as a unity due

Globalisation can be defined as the progression of the world becoming smaller which strengthens social interactions all over the world as a result of advanced technology and diminishing significance of borders between states (Giddens, 1991; Larsson, 2001). Globalisation has also increased the perception of the world as a unity due to the growing dependence between countries (Baylis & Smith, 2001; Robertson, 1992), affecting almost all aspects of the society, such as economics, politics, and cultural. In addition, migration is also one of the most noticeable aspects of globalisation: rising numbers of individuals moving within countries and across borders, in search of better job opportunities and lifestyles (International Institute for Environment and Development, 2001). Most migrants worldwide come from developing countries (157 million in 2015), and the majority were living in high-income countries (United Nations, 2016). However, it is not easy to find official jobs, therefore some people, mainly women in this case, are pressured to look for other options such as sex work (Ward & Aral, 2006). Sex work can be described as a trade of sexual services for material compensation, including direct physical contact amongst consumers and sellers along with indirect sexual stimulation (Weitzer, 2000). Most sex workers are female but male and transgender can also be in the sex industry, and the limitations of sex work can be unclear, varying between erotic shows without direct physical interaction with the buyer, to high risk unprotected sexual intercourse with many clients (Harcourt & Donovan, 2005). Kinds of sex work vary from street prostitution, indoor prostitution (escort services, brothel work, massage parlour-related prostitution, bar or casino prostitution), phone sex operation, lap dancing, webcam nude modelling, to pornographic film performing. In the past 30 years the term “sex work” has been used, generally addressing all types of sexual commerce in an attempt to decrease the stigma associated with the term “prostitution” and to express professionalism (Kissil & Davey, 2010). However, this term is seen as problematic as it acknowledges that prostitution is an acceptable form of work.

Introduction Labour Organization (ILO), quite 337 million accidents

Introduction to the project       A work accident, geographical point accident, activity accident, or accident at work is a “discrete incidence within the course of work” resulting in physical or mental occupational injury.1 According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), quite 337 million accidents happen on the work annually, resulting, along with occupational diseases, in additional than a pair of.3 million deaths annually.   The phrase “in the course of work” will embrace work-related accidents happening off the company’s premises, and may embrace accidents caused by third parties, according to Eurostat. The definition of work accident includes accidents occurring “while engaged in associate degree economic activity, or at work, or carrying on the business of the employer” in line with the ILO.  The phrase “physical or mental harm” means that any injury, disease, or death. activity accidents disagree from activity diseases as accidents square measure sudden and unplanned occurrences (e.g., mine collapse), whereas activity diseases square measure “contracted as a results of associate degree exposure over a amount of your time to risk factors arising from work activity” (e.g., miner’s lung).Company Background     Vyramid Electrical Sdn Bhd could be a non-public company restricted specialised in Mechanical and Electrical Company that primarily based in Penang since 2014.      Scope of activities inclusive  of electrical services on installations that offer, deliver, install and take a look at, installation for power, lighting and controls, lightning protection and grounding system, switchgear and electrical device installation, generating set, frequency convertor, compressor and motor installation, electrical and mechanical works for prime rise buildings, residential and manufacturing plant.     Embrace continual improvement which can keep America meeting and prodigious the quality expectations of our customers, employees, contractors and third parties. The business has developed a wonderful name for delivering a top quality, skilled service, and as a result, enjoys long run relationships with a longtime shopper base.   Problem Statement   VEE SDN BHD incorporates twenty five direct staff and variety thirty four foreign employees employed through man power organization. Out of the twenty five staff eight of them {based|based mostly|primarily primarily based} at workplace whereas the remainder based at construction website. each workplace staffs and website employees square measure exposed to geographical point accidents. Compare to the workplace, accident numbers at construction aspect square measure continually higher and dangerous.Here I created an inventory of known threat and hazard at work place.Table:Office:Damaged outlet Use of sharp tools in workplaceArranging store thingsUse of PPE whereas handling toolsConstruction websiteUsage of PPEHandling serious Machineries Cable pullInstallation of electrical things Use of sharp instrumentality Aim  The aim of this study is verify the factors that cause geographical point accident at VEE SDN BHD and planned ways in which to enhance safety behavior at geographical point to scale back the amount of accidents that occur.Objective    1) to spot the factors that influence to figure place accident  2) To rectify the matter to scale back the amount of labor place accidents.Significance of  the Study        Generally, this study can facilitate to enhance the security behavior at the geographical point however it’ll additionally increase VEE SDN BHD’s information and perception towards safety behavior. what is more, it’ll additionally facilitate to enhance the security implementation at their company. This analysis can also facilitate VEE SDN BHD to know factors that contribute to the accidents and develop management ways to stop accidents happened at the geographical point.To ensure the security atmosphere and culture at the geographical point, staff have to be compelled to be educate concerning the human factors that associated with their behaviors so as to stop accident and work connected injuries. it’s necessary for the workers to aware that accident are often prevented if they’re very operating forward to that.Finally, it also can contribute to a tutorial information for future man of science wherever it’s expected to focus on the link between human factors and safety behavior.Limitations of the study  Since this study was conducted around 2 months I found immeasurable difficulties, as a result of whereas doing this analysis i used to be additionally operating. therefore I even have time constraint to complete my thesis. Addition to the current, I even have to visit construction websites to try and do my interviews and survey with site employees. Respondents UN agency conducted during this study might not be honest once respondent my survey type. may|this could} be as a result of they could be petrified of their superior and a few might assume it’s a waste of your time to answer survey forms.

Assessments successfully completing an online course and then

Assessments are an important part of training, not only it help decides whether the training objectives were met but also track the learner’s progress. So can one say that successfully completing an online course and then its online assessment can assure their success? Can scoring high in assessments mean that we have gained a thorough understanding of that subject? How can one judge the effectiveness of any elearning training program?Learning analytics here can help answer all these questions. learning analytics is the collective measurement, analysis and reporting of data about learners with only objective of understanding and optimizing learning. By tracking the learner’s online activity in a LMS and further applying the analytics to it can help identify new learning patterns and improve the learning potential of the learner. Such analytics can not only benefit the learner but can also increases the efficiency of an online course in LMS.Online assessment can be broadly divided into two categoriesFormative :- Formative assessment are used to keep track of the learner’s performance after each learning point that is after every unit or topic. These assessment track user’s progress and helps in feedback. Formative assessment’s main purpose is to identify the areas of improvement for the learner.Summative :- Summative assessment are included at the end of the eLearning course. These are designed such to examine the skillfulness of the learner. After this assessment  grades or marks are assigned to the learner. Summative assessments main purpose is to evaluate the learners level of understanding at the end of the course.Formative assessment with learning analyticsSince formative assessment focuses more on learner’s improvement, they are allowed extra attempts for every incorrect question. Data such as number of attempts, responses during each attempt, time taken to answer every question, most popular response etc regarding each question is captured for analysis. later a personalized feedback report is generated identifying their weak points. Such assessments can reveal a lot about the learner. Mining the learner’s data can disclose distinct learning and performance patterns. Not only this helps the learner but also helps identifying the quality of the course content. For instance if many users are performing poorly then this raises flag, evaluation of content should be done to see if the assessment matches the content covered in that particular unit.Summative assessment with learning analyticsBased on the previously captured data from users past assessments, predictive analytics can be implemented. Based on the distinct patterns found after formative assessment Predictions can be made about the learner’s performance even before they attempt the summative or final assessment. Such predictions  help developing an adaptive assessment test that surpasses the general standard patterns. These assessment methods offer high level of accuracy and insights in assessing learners.Valuable insights from learning analytics can now be used to increase the potential reach of your e-learning course and make your LMS an instant hit. 

Caring provide children with the best possible start

Caring and passion are attributes that make me an ideal
candidate for the Early Childhood Studies degree. My ambition and determination
to provide children with the best possible start to life is the essence of a
career in childcare. Undertaking this degree will allow me to further develop
my knowledge on how children develop in physical, cognitive and social ways.
This degree will prepare me to become a competent advocate for young children.

I have carried out a work placement in Sandwell and West
Birmingham nursery in 2010. During this placement, I used my creativity in
order to plan out activities for children from the age of 3 months. My
communication skills enhanced, as the techniques I used varied between each
child depending on their stage in development. Helping children learn their
tactile and self-sufficiency skills proved to be very rewarding as I could see
their progress as they developed. Working in this environment has helped me gain
greater insight into the stages of development in younger children. In addition
to this, I worked as a Healthcare Apprentice at Walsall Manor Hospital, working
towards a level 2 Diploma in Clinical Healthcare Support (QCF) and Care
Certificate. The care certificate enhanced my knowledge of equality and
diversity, privacy and dignity, safeguarding adults and children, health and
safety and awareness of mental health. This knowledge is beneficial as it can
be applied to several different working environments. Being an apprentice
ensured that I was able to balance my placement alongside my theoretical
workload. I carried out my main practical placements on a short stay ward
whilst working in several other departments including paediatrics.

 I am currently working
as a healthcare assistant which helps me build my tolerance for working under
pressure whilst remaining calm and well organised in order to be efficient.
Strong communications skills are vital for this job as I communicate with
colleagues, patients and family members. During my practical placement there
are been situations were disagreements between colleges or patients have been
raised; in these situations, I was able to use my critical thinking skills to
resolve any conflict. As a Healthcare assistant, I completed mandatory training
and study days such as safeguarding for adults, safeguarding for children,
clinical updates, fire safety, conflict resolution, mental health awareness and
first aid. From my experiences, in the workplace, I have built strong
leadership skills and strengthened my time management skills, organisation and
my skills in team work. I use my initiative to carry out the tasks that need to
be done in order for all care being provided to patients is of a high standard.
From the experience I have gained I have been able to advanced my ability to
adapt to new situations.

Previously studying psychology in 6th Form, I studied a case
study created by Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson (1964). This study is where
I derived my curiosity into early childhood studies as Schaffer and Emerson
(1964) discovered that children develop attachment through a sequence of 4
stages. This is where I gained my intrigue in the development of children from
a young age. At present, I am doing the Access to Health course which consists
of Study Skills, Health Studies, Anatomy and Physiology and Psychology. In
psychology, I have studied the psychology of mental health. This, I believe is
extremely beneficial as it will allow to see what factors could affect the
deployment of children.

Combining all the strengths and qualities I believe that I
will use this degree to reach my full potential in Children’s services.

CHAPTER substrates which are fabricated separately and finally



Substrate Bonding

Microfluidic devices are often made
up of two substrates which are fabricated separately and finally assembled together
via a bonding process. In order to bond a structured substrate to a cover plate
to form enclosed microfluidic networks without clogging or deforming the
features and channels, a wide variety of techniques has been developed. Bonding
techniques can be classified into two major categories: Direct bonding and
bonding with an intermediate layer aka adhesive bonding. Direct bonding
techniques provide high bonding strength and hermetic sealing, but they require
harsh conditions, extremely clean and flat surfaces, and the access to
sophisticated equipment. On the contrary, adhesive bonding is a cost effective,
low-temperature, and less demanding surface quality alternative that can be
used in non-flat substrates. However, adhesive leakage into the micro-channels,
limited temperature stability, and non-uniform bonding of substrates due to the
formation of voids are some of the main disadvantages of these techniques 1. In this report,
direct bonding and thermal bonding are used interchangeably.

2.2 Bonding Requirements

To ensure a perfectly bonded surface,
several specific environmental conditions are required. These include:

1.     substrate surface




2.     bonding environment

bond temperature

ambient pressure

applied force

3.     materials

substrate materials

intermediate layer materials

The actual bond is an interaction of
all those conditions and requirements. Hence, the applied technology needs to
be chosen in respect to the present substrate and defined specification like
maximum bearable temperature, mechanical pressure or desired gaseous

2.3 Types of bonding

There is a wide array of bonding
techniques available today. However, each bonding techniques are limited to the
type of material used as well as its properties. In this section, two bonding
methods applicable to ceramic/ceramic bonds will be investigated here, namely thermal
bonding and adhesive bonding. These bonding techniques do not harm the optical
properties of the materials.

2.3.1 Thermal Bonding

In this process, two substrates are brought into atomic
contact whereby force and heat is applied simultaneously 2. This bonding
mechanism requires atomic contact between the two surfaces of interest due to
atomic motion. The resulting effect is the migration of atoms from one crystal
lattice to another based on crystal lattice vibration 3. The atomic
interaction sticks the surfaces together and a bonded product is finally
obtained after the cooling process.
However, it necessitates
the uniform application of pressure over the entire substrate to seal the micro-channels
and other microfluidic components, and this is not trivial, especially in cases
involving a large bonding area. Furthermore, given that the bonding area
changes following the channel design, it is necessary to precisely calculate
and control the applied force to avoid delamination or channel collapse during
the bonding process 4.




Figure 1:
Thermal bonding process

Two-step thermal diffusion bonding
has been used to bond two transparent Nd-doped yttrium-aluminium garnet
(Nd:YAG) ceramics samples into monolithic material. The thermal diffusional bonding
was conducted via two steps. In the first step the samples mechanically
polished to a flatness of ?/20 were placed into an original
experimental setup and were bonded together under uniaxial pressure of
30 MPa at 1440 °C for 2 h. The second step consisted in
calcination of bonded ceramics at 1780 °C for 20 h under vacuum. The
in-line transmittance and absorption coefficient of monolithic Nd:YAG ceramic
sample after two-step thermal diffusional bonding was equivalent to that of the
starting ceramics 5. 

Also, direct thermal diffusion
bonding has been used to bond two separately polished Nd:YAG/YAG composite
transparent ceramics into monolithic and uniform composite-material by vacuum
sintering at 1790 °C for
50 h under uniaxial pressure of 60 MPa, and then annealed at
1450 °C for 100 h in air. The fracture strength of bonded samples at
the bonding interface is higher than that of as-prepared Nd:YAG/YAG samples 6.
Thermal Bonding Parameters

temp, pressure and duration

Elaborate on each parameters


2.3.2 Adhesive Bonding (Bonding
with an intermediate layer)

An adhesive is a material applied to
surfaces of articles to permanently join them by a bonding process. It is a substance
capable of forming bonds to each of the two or more part interfaces comprising
the final object. Adhesives accomplish this goal by transmitting stresses from
one member to another in a manner that distributes the stresses much more
uniformly. It is not unusual to obtain adhesive bonds that are stronger than
the strength of the adherends (surfaces that are to be bonded together).

Adhesive bonding involves the use of an adhesive compound
(organic) which acts as an intermediary between the ceramic and the other
adherend. Many adhesives including acrylics and methacrylics are used to bond

There is a wide range of adhesives readily
available in the market these days. However, thermal bonding has been chosen
over adhesive bonding due to the fact that the intermediate layer has to be IR
transparent to be used in microfluidic applications coupled with Fourier
Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Such adhesives are not as
ready available and may be explored in the future. Adhesive Bonding Parameters

The most important process
parameters for achieving a high bonding strength are the adhesive material,
coating thickness, bonding temperature, processing time, chamber pressure and
tool pressure 7.

Elaborate on each parameters Surface Treatment

Surface preparation or treatment for adhesion
is defined as one or a series of operations including cleaning, removal of
loose material, and physical and/or chemical modification of a surface to which
an adhesive is applied for the purpose of bonding. The objective of any surface
treatment method is to enhance the adhesive bond strength and durability. The basic requirements for a good
adhesive bond are the following: proper choice of adhesive; good joint design;
cleanliness of surfaces; wetting of adherends (surfaces that are to be bonded together) by the adhesive; and
proper adhesive bonding process (solidification and cure). 7


The main
reasons for applying surface treatments prior to bonding are:

To remove
or prevent the later formation of a weak layer on the surface of the substrate;

maximize the degree of molecular interaction between the adhesive or primer and
the substrate surface;

optimize the adhesion forces which develop across the interfaces and therefore
ensure sufficient joint strength, initially and during the service life of the

To create
specific surface microstructure on the substrate.


2.4 Bond Strength

How to check bond strength


2.5 Optical Transmittance

A medium (including
solids) may be considered as “transparent” if it allows the formation of an
undistorted (“clear”) image of a target scene in a sensor (say the human eye).
For this the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (reflected or emitted) coming from
each point of the scenery has to transit the medium (media) between the scene
and sensor, with minimal (ideally zero) disruptive interaction with it. 8


The resolution of the image
(defined by the aid of the Rayleigh criterion) is also an important parameter
used in the estimation of image quality, dependent on a number of factors,
including those which influence transparency. The resolution provided by an
optical part through which a target scene is viewed is defined as the minimal
angular separation between two point sources of the target for which the points
can be perceived as distinct. Diffraction at the aperture of the optical part
enlarges the “point source” (i.e., of zero dimension), transforming it into a
finite size spot surrounded by fainter luminous concentric rings separated by
dark rings (this system is called an Airy disk). Rayleigh’s criterion of
resolution is that the central spot of one “point source” overlaps the first
dark ring of its neighbour.







1: Two resolvable light source (a), unresolvable light sources according to      Rayleigh criterion (b)


In other words, the solid needs to exhibit a high ability to
transmit the EMR unperturbed. In this context it is worth noting that the total
forward transmission (TFT) together with the “in-line” transmission (ILT) along
the axis, typically also includes a diffuse component (distributed within a
conical region around the viewing axis).

Considering the above, we see that for high transparency it
is necessary to maximize the ILT and minimize (eliminate, if possible) the
diffuse component.


Factors Reducing ILT

A solid object
(located on the viewing path) can reduce (attenuate) the intensity of EMR
incident on it by reflection, refraction, scattering, and absorption. Other
losses, caused by coarse surfaces and parasitic absorbers, can be avoided by
quite straightforward processing actions.

2.6.3 Scattering

Scattering is caused by small (a size ?10 ?) regions of
various morphologies and with a refraction index n2 in
a light transmitting host with different index n1.
Scattering, as opposed to reflection and refraction, cannot be treated by the
aid of the geometrical optics laws which apply only when size ??. Scattering causes an omnidirectional (around the
scatterer) distribution of light, most of it with same ? as the incident ray.
Part of the EMR transits the scatterer undisturbed, but then interferes with
the waves emitted by it. Solid second phases sometimes located at the grain
boundary (GB) region, gas filled or empty pores, microcracks, or mechanical
stress field concentrations are the most ubiquitous scatterers in transparent




Albert in Germany. He was mathematician and physicist.

Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1876 in Germany. He was mathematician and physicist. he got awarded annually for outstanding work in physics, chemistry and  in physics.EINSTEIN makes a statement that described what is PHOTOELECTRIC Albert Einstein was born in March 14, 1876 in Germany. He was mathematician and physicist. he got awarded annually for outstanding work in physics, chemistry in physics.EINSTEIN makes a statement that described what is photoelectric effect. In following a period of ten years, he came to live in U.S. after being noticed by the terrorist hitler then argued with him he then took his property away force him to move to usa.  His work had also a big development of atom is the tinest component of an element of energy. In his later future, Einstein  directing a great deal of attention on become united a theory that describes two or more of the four interactions (electromagnetic, gravitational, weak, and strong) previously described by separate theories. strong and barely controllable emotion for an act of asking for information, Einstein is in most cases; usually.think carefully about (something), typically before making a decision.the most the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.physicist of the 20th century.t . In following a period of ten years, he came to live in U.S. after being noticed by the terrorist hitler then argued with him he then took his property away force him to move to usa.  His work had also a big development of atom is the tinest component of an element of required the strength and vitality  for sustained physical or mental activity.. In his later future, Einstein  directing a great deal of attention on become united a theory that describes two or more of the four interactions (electromagnetic, gravitational, weak, and strong) previously described by separate theories. strong and barely controllable emotion for an act of asking for information, Einstein is in most cases; usually.think carefully about (something), typically before making a decision.the most the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.physicist of the 20th century.

In addition, Rogers states that the most vital

In addition,
Rogers states that the most vital factor in a successful therapy relationship
is moulded by the therapist’s attitude towards their client.  Rogers added that, “It is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what
problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried.” Rogers
(1951, 2004) p62 citated in Culley & Bond (2011). Although, person centred
counselling is a non-directive style of counselling, it empowers the client.
The advantage of this approach is, it is more beneficial to individuals who
have the strong will power to explore themselves and linking this into my practice,
Rogers statement to say the client knows what hurts, does not apply to all
circumstances. In our practice, some of our clients that have dementia, physical
and mental disabilities so some of these clients may not even be aware of what
they need to live a life that is worthy. They do not have the mental capacity
to know and decide what is wrong and what is right for them. Therefore, these
clients might not even know what their problems are, in this case these clients
are protected by the Mental Health Capacity Act (2005) and Safeguarding of
Vulnerable Adults.


The three
core conditions of counselling that Rogers identified are all inter-linked and
he believed that these are necessary if clients are to make progress in
counselling, Rogers (1951). These conditions are supported with some skills for
counselling to be more effective. Online,
http://www.thecounsellorsguide.co.uk/active-listening-skills.html. In a
counselling relationship Rogers, describes congruence as genuineness and he
regarded it as a quality of honest, sincerity and authenticity. He suggests
that for the counsellor to be congruent with clients, counsellors need to be
honest. Hough (2013) p. 151. Rogers believed that transparency of the therapist
and willingness to listen to their story client would build and strengthen
relations between the therapist and client Rogers (1957).




Edgar Egan
(1994) an American Professor of Organisation Studies, formed a 3 stage skilled
helper model which also believes in the 3 core conditions which are congruence,
empathy and the unconditional positive regard (UPR), which Rogers (1959)
believes into as well. The skilled helper is used by professionals such as
doctors, social welfare workers, teachers, psychologists, ministers of religion,
just to name a few Hough (2013) p.18. Unlike Rogers, Egan’s Skilled Helper Model
uses a directive approach. Egan’s skilled helper model is much focused on
problem solving, predicting when a problem is about to happen and preventing
the problem before it happens. In other words, it is a solution focused model.
The skilled helper model assists their client to develop and acquire skills
which are then applied to solve both current and future problems Egan (1994).
The use of open questions helps the client to talk more. The clients are
encouraged to utilise external resources and support groups to realise their
potential. This model helps clients to apply skills that will lead to realistic
and achievable goals. The skilled helper model is different from person -centred
counselling in the fact that, it’s a non-directive approach. There is no
challenging involved in the person-centred counselling Rogers (1957).



In addition,
the first stage of the skilled helper is exploration and this is whereby the
counsellor has an initial meeting with client and the counsellor is trying to
find out more about the client, Egan (1994). This stage the same as Rogers
person centred theory whereby both client and therapist are getting to know one
another. It is important for the counsellor to introduce themselves, the
company they represent and what they do. It is at this stage whereby the
counsellor is trying to establish the difficulties that the client might be having.
This stage requires clarification and identification of the client’s problems
that needs priority and to know the level of seriousness and the urgency of the
issues that the client has, Culley & Bond (2011) p16. To help the
counsellor to achieve this, there are some important basic skills which are
useful and one of them is active listening. This is a very important skill and if
combined with reflecting, it helps to achieve empathy. Active listening is a
technique which is used in counselling and l use it in my practice Culley
(2011) p17. I am a support worker in my work place, and my responsibility
is to make sure that the learning disability clients in our care setting are
properly cared for and supported to make their lives as comfortable as possible
therefore, active listening and communication is of paramount importance to
both staff and clients. This technique is used daily and can be divided by two
components which are verbal and non-verbal communication. When actively listening,
one should pay attention to what is being said and observing the body language,
Culley (2011) p27-60.



 Active listening and attending affects and
adds value to each other, Hough p.50. Listening carefully with all your senses
and paying much attention even to the client’s body gestures during a
conversation will make it easier to paraphrase and reflect on what the client
has said, and the body language can represent feelings. Paraphrasing and
reflecting should be done through checking with client, repeating what they
have said to you using your own words to verify understanding and feelings.
Although paraphrasing and reflecting is recommended as a way of checking your
understanding of what is being said, Nelson-Jones (2005) argues, that it is not
always necessary to paraphrase all the time, but only to do it when necessary.
This is evidenced by the reaction of some of my clients as they usually get
upset if you repeat something to them often. In my evaluation, l share the same
idea with Jones (2005) that the counsellor must make their own judgement as to
how many times one should make the use paraphrasing in each situation as this
appears to irritate others in some circumstances.



The second
stage of the skilled helper model is challenging and this involves brain storming
and creative thinking. This is done by the counsellor to encourage the client
to explore other options of solving their problem Egan (2002). The client is
still the main priority in this problem solving but, the counsellor may help to
identify the area in which progress may be implemented. This is the stage to look
at the blind spots and challenge them by finding a way to solve the problems or
concerns Egan (1994). In the 3rd and final stage of the skilled
helper, the action and implementation of the new plans looking to move forward
are applied. The skilled helper model is also applied in some areas of my work.
We do safeguarding of our vulnerable clients; therefore, we look at the current
and future situation. An example is when our client X moved into our setting,
she was young and managing to walk down some steps through the lounge but,
after a recent near miss accident, an assessment was carried out and a new hand
rail was installed in the lounge for her to pass through with easy access. We
are assisted with tools such as care plans and some monthly or weekly reviews
which we carry out regularly. This is focusing on both current and future
situations. There are measurable and realistic targets that we set as per
individuals according to their needs. This allows us to solve current problems
and focus on the future.


defined empathy as a level of understanding that must be accomplished by the
therapist to the client, Rogers (1957). In the early 1900s, there were some
definitions of empathy in psychology and psychiatry by other researchers.
Empathy was a great therapeutic connection with the client’s experience. (Clark
2004, Feller & Cottone, 2003; Pigman, 1995). Although, Rogers (1957)
believed empathy was a requirement in person centred counselling and mental
health, Clark (2004) questions if empathy was the only necessary and sufficient
condition of the therapeutic process. Rogers suggests that the counsellor ought
to feel the client’s world like his own and show this understanding to the
client. He refers this as taking a client’s frame of reference meaning an
understanding of the client or how they perceive the issue on their client’s
hand (Rogers, 1957,1959). Unlike Truax (1967) and Carkhuff (1969) who successfully
described empathy for use in training programs, but Roger’s work did not
provide specifications on basic or advanced empathy. Rogers believed that if
the three core conditions namely congruence, unconditional positive regard and
empathy are met, clients are more likely to engage willingly and this will
facilitate personal growth hence moving towards self -actualization, Rogers
(1957). Although Rogers core conditions are important they are not sufficient
on their own.



conclusion to this essay, I have learnt to keep some reflective journals as recommended
by Barbra Bassot (2016). The reflective journal will help me to understand
myself more and to take a deeper approach to my personal development where l
gained a lot of knowledge and understanding through learning and applying new
skills. These skills learnt will not only be beneficial to me l will apply them
at work and use them when helping my family and friends.