This old bonds and form new ones to

This experiment was to test how different
pH levels affect lactase activity.  Enzymes
help speed up reactions within the human body. 
Lactase is one of those enzymes and helps break down milk protein.  Using an enzyme concentration of 1/1000 and 2.5mM
ONPG, we observed the enzyme activity with 3 different pH levels.  The result was that pH 4 had the highest average
activity compared to pH 7 and pH 10. 
This shows that lactase increases its activity within acidic pH levels
and decreases within basic levels. 

Introduction

Enzymes are
catalysts; this means without permanently chemically changing itself, they can
increase the rate of a reaction of another substance (Freeman
et al., 2017).  Enzymes have an active site that allows them
to bind substrates together, which helps break old bonds and form new ones to
produce a product (Freeman et al., 2017).  All reactions need some amount of initial
energy input to be completed.  Enzymes
lower the activation energy (the amount of energy needed to reach the transit
state) which increases the speed of the reaction (Freeman et al., 2017). 

Every enzyme has
its optimal functional conditions.  Certain
factors can affect the function of an enzyme. 
Things like the pH level, temperature level, interactions with different
molecules, and changes to its primary structure can alter the function of an
enzyme (Freeman et al., 2017).  Temperature can affect an enzymes movement
and folding pattern (Freeman et al., 2017).  The pH can affect the charge on amino and carboxyl
groups in side chains and the active site’s ability to react with the transfer
of protons and electrons (Freeman et al.,
2017).  When properly used, these
factors can help regulate an enzyme’s activity. 

The human body
uses enzymes to help with many functions. 
Lactase is an enzyme located in the small intestine that helps break
down a milk sugar called lactose in the human body (Gerbault, 2014).  Since this enzyme is located within the
digestive system, it will encounter fluids within the human digestive
tract.  Gastric fluids are known to have
a high acidic pH of 1.5-3.5 (O’Connor and O’Morain, 2014).  A common average pH level of the fluids in
the small intestine is 6-7 (Evans et al.,
1988).  This brought up the question, if
the pH level in the small intestine was more acidic, would the lactase reaction
rate increase?  We conducted an
experiment to find out if different pH levels affect the reaction rate of
lactase.

We hypothesized
that the pH level would affect the lactase reaction rate.  Using different pH levels as the environmental
condition, we can test to see if an acidic, basic, or neutral pH produces the
optimal lactase reaction rate.  Since the
enzyme is in the digestive system, lactase activity will increase as the pH
gets lower.  Which in turn, the lactase
activity will decrease as the pH level gets higher.

Materials and
Methods

We blanked the
spectrophotometer (or zeroed it out) at the wavelength 420 nm with 3 mL of
phosphate buffer in a cuvette.  Next, we
made the enzyme concentration 1/1000 by crushing up a lactate pill with a
mortar and pestle.  We then took that
powder and put it into a beaker containing 10 mL of phosphate buffer in
it.  After we stirred the solution and
let it sit for 2 minutes, we filtered the solution into a different beaker with
a paper towel.  The filtered solution
became our stock enzyme solution. 

Next, we filled 3
large test tubes with 9 mL of phosphate buffer in each tube and then added 1 mL
of the stock enzyme solution to the first test tube.  We then performed a serial dilution with the
remainder of the tubes and put the last 1 mL into the sink.  The third test tube contains the enzyme
concentration that we used for the rest of this experiment, which is
1/1000. 

Then we filled 3
cuvettes each with 1 mL of the 1/1000 enzyme solution.  We added 1 mL of pH 7 to the first cuvette, 1
mL of pH 4 to the second cuvette, and 1 mL of pH 10 to the third cuvette.  Next, we took the pH 7 cuvette and added 1 mL
of 2.5mM ONPG to it and quickly put the cuvette into the spectrophotometer.  We recorded the absorbance in 30 second
intervals for 5 minutes.  After 5
minutes, we removed the pH 7 cuvette and repeated the process with the pH 4 and
the pH 10 cuvettes.  We then repeated
this experiment for 2 more trials for each pH level.

Results

            The data for each 3
trials of each pH level are demonstrated by Tables 1, 2, and 3.  The absorbance from the spectrophotometer
represents the lactase activity.  For
each pH level, the total absorbance at minute 5 lowered with each trial.  During trial 2, the pH 10 absorbance was in
the negatives for over 3 minutes.  Figure
1 is a visual representation of Table 1. 
PH 4 started with the lowest absorbance at time 0 with .017, but ended
minute 5 with the highest at .584.  PH 10
started with the highest absorbance at .047, but ended with the lowest at only
.092.  Figure 2 represents Table 2 and
produced different results than trial 1. 
PH 4 at time 0 had the highest absorbance at .013.  At 150 seconds, pH 4 and pH 7 had roughly the
same absorbance at .143 and .140.  At minute
5, pH 7 had the highest at .311.   Figure
3 visually represents Table 3 and is closer to trial 1 rather than trial
2.  PH 10 had the highest absorbance at
time 0 with -.006.  PH 4 at time 0 had
the lowest absorbance at -.031, but ended minute 5 with the highest at
.243.  For each trail, pH 10 absorbance
stayed at a slow constant increase.  Figure
4 shows the average absorbance for each pH level at minute 3.

Discussion

Our results supported the alternate hypothesis
of the lactase reaction rate being affected by different pH levels.  The pH 4 solution had the highest average
absorption rate compared to the pH 7 and pH 10 solutions (refer to Figure 4).  This supports lactase having a quicker reaction
in acidic solutions rather than basic.  Having
a basic pH added to lactase will decrease the reaction time significantly. 

The data in trial 2 (Figure 2, Table 2) did
not support our hypothesis.  This could
have been due to errors in the solutions or in the spectrophotometer.  A “cloudy” cuvette can cause misreads in a
spectrophotometer.  Not zeroing the
machine out before starting the experiment can also lead to altered data.  We did not keep the solutions coved tightly
during the experiment, so the outside environment could have altered them.  This could also be the reason that the
overall absorbance for each trail decreased. 

For future
experiments, we could keep the solutions in their original containers with seal
on them, so they are not exposed to the environment.  The outside of the cuvettes could be cleaned
right before putting the ONPG into it to make sure it is clear. We could also
have multiple trials running at the same time instead of performing them one at
a time.  This could cut down the
experiment time and the amount of error possibility.  To get significant results, there needs to be
more research done on how different pH levels affect lactase activity.  Different concentrations of lactase need to
be tested at different pH levels.  This
type of experiment would help distinguish if the neutral small
intestine/lactase relationship is supported or not.

Reconstruction now there is a form of political

Reconstruction
took place after the Civil war during the years 1865-1877. This era was full of
many questions without clear answers, and therefore I do not believe it was a
radical break from the past. This era was exceptionally revolutionary, but not
a break from past occurrences or thoughts. Using what we knew as a country to
understand where we were at that point in time, there was little understanding
of what to do next. Would the confederacy be allowed back into the Union
without any consequences? Would black men and women be of the same social
status as white men and women? Would racism and violence be put to rest? There
was a break in the initial violence, but now there is a form of political
violence to be had when answering these harder questions. I do not think that
the Reconstruction was a radical break from the past.

Firstly,
we can see that the country was in shambles right after the Civil war. There
were four years of war that impacted the country’s resources as well as their
people. Thousands upon thousands died during this war on the home-front for the
abolition of slavery. But after the fighting had ceased and the Union had
officially won, there were multiple other issues that needed to be resolved.  The administration of Andrew Johnson, after
Lincoln’s assassination, worked to ensure the rights of slaves, while also
allowing them to work.  Under Johnson, a
series of “black codes” here released to better detail black people’s activity.
These codes are defining freedom that very much resembled slavery. According to
an article titled “Mississippi Black Code, November 1865” from our textbook,
“every civil officer shall, and every person many arrest and carry back to his
or her legal employer any freedman, free negro or mulatto.” This definitely has
hints of slave-management tones, although they added the word “free.” This was
in no way a break from the past. If anything, it was moving towards the
limitation of black people once again. To be considered a “radical break from
the past” I believe there had to have been some forward momentum off the bat.
This era seemed to begin with many struggles and doubt.

Slavery
is the big question posed here after the war. Those who had fought for the
abolition of slavery were outraged to see political figures move towards a
limited form of treatment when it came to black people. Republicans in congress
began to take control of the Reconstruction that was going on in the South. The
Reconstruction act was passed in 1867, which organized suffrage and split the
south into military districts. This poses a big question for me, are these
states ready to be committed to the Union now? Considering they were the enemy
for four years, why would they feel the need to organize the south in such a
way now? According to an article titled “Reconstruction” written for the
History Channel, “By 1870, all of the former Confederate states had been
admitted to the Union, and the state constitutions during the years of Radical
Reconstruction were the most progressive in the region’s history.” Whether they
felt as though the South was perfectly acceptable in the Union or not, they
admitted them to attempt to move forward after the war. It wasn’t until 1877
that all of the northern troops were removed from the south, the end of
reconstruction. I do not think that this era was a radical break whatsoever.
The changes that took place had to have been changed a few times before they
were actually what the white abolitionists wanted as well as free black former
slaves.

Secondly,
“African-American participation in southern public life after 1867 would be by
far the most radical development of Reconstruction” states the History Channel.
The rights of those who had earned freedom were slim towards the beginning, but
eventually moved towards a greater equality as time wore on alongside new laws.
The three most important laws during reconstruction were the three amendments
that were passed dealing with slavery as a thing of the past. The 13th
amendment, which abolished slavery, came first. Second was the 14th
amendment, giving black people birthright citizenship in the United States, and
third was the 15th amendment, giving black men the right to vote.
This part of the reconstruction was definitely the most influential and long
lasting, but it seemed to definitely take some arguing and some protesting to
get to this point. There were also those who opposed black integration
altogether, such as the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) who organized themselves in 1866. Many
accounts of violence and discrimination after the initial emancipation has been
recorded. According to another article from the textbook titled “Klan Violence
Against Blacks,” we can see a large amount of reported violence and racial
discrimination towards people who made themselves known to the KKK community. “At
last they came up to my brother’s door, which is in the same yard, and broke
open the door and attacked his wife, I heard her screaming and mourning” (Elias
Hill).

When
asking the big questions during this time period, we can see that there was no
immediate action towards helping black people become 100% independent after the
war. They were free, slavery had been abolished. But those like Johnson who
attempted to still limit their rights were still there. There is a reason that
giving the right for black men to vote wasn’t one of the earliest amendments.
There will still be segregation or decades afterwards as well as racism and
discrimination. Therefore, I believe that this era was not a point of radical
breakthroughs, it was a buildup of hundreds of years that had finally succumb
to the weight of its problems. I believe that there was no ultimate tipping
point after the Civil war. I do not think that the Reconstruction was a radical
break from the past. (988)

In was in the oven of a house.

In the year A.D. 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, killing almost all of the 20,000 citizens of Pompeii. The ash from this volcano blanketed the city, and caused all life to come to a standstill. Pliny the Younger described the city in this state as “buried deep in ashes like snowdrifts” (Pliny the Younger, Letter to Cornelius Tacitus). This description echoes the new quietness of the city, after all the “shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men”, (Ibid), had subsided.   The city could have been described as “frozen in time”, as the city was preserved completely in the moment. For example, excavators discovered a loaf of bread that was in the oven of a house. Fig. 1

 

 

Also, Horace Walpole said that the structures in the city had not been “crushed together” but were “standing upright in their proper situation” (Horace Walpole’s Letters 1740, cited in Haggerty, 2011, p.63-65). This preservation was crucial for people to enjoy and learn from the ruins of Pompeii, ergo, crucial for its popularity, (otherwise, there would be nothing remaining to become popular). 

 

Fortunately, in 1748, Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre rediscovered Pompeii, and started excavations that would lead to a huge increase in the popularity of Pompeii in 18th century, and eventually the 19th century as well. He excavated the Villa of Cicero, a house I will discuss again later in this essay. In terms of answering this complex question, I will be using both primary and secondary sources as well as in-depth case studies to formulate my response. I have decided to focus on interior design in this assignment, as I believe that this topic has lots of scope for original and valid arguments to be made about how and why Pompeii experienced increasing popularity.  The stylings, paintings and household items seen in Pompeii inspired a huge increase in interior design, (mainly by the upper classes of the 18th century). However, this also became very popular in the 19th century, which I will discuss later in the assignment.

Reception and popularity of Pompeii in the 18th century

After Pompeii was rediscovered, groups of people called Grand Tourists flocked to Pompeii to learn about the ancient city. These people were usually upper class men and women, with lots of wealth and status in society. They were accompanied by tutors on a tour of historical places like Pompeii to enhance their education. The main objectives of going on a Grand Tour such as this were to experience life as a Pompeian, as well as being able to showcase their new education of ancient paintings and relics to other people back in the UK.  Grand Tourists did this by taking original or reconstructed statues and artworks back to Britain, and often hosting parties to display these items and let everyone know how cultured and educated they were. Lady Charlotte Lindsey, a Grand Tourist, said, “Nothing can convey a more exact idea of the domestic life…ruins of Pompeii” (Lady Charlotte Lindsey, letter dated 1815). This quote shows how valuable the source of Pompeii is, and gives us an insight into why it became so popular, namely because it was impossible to learn about an ancient city quite like excavators and tourists could learn about Pompeii. This led to a surge of interest in Pompeii, as the walls of the city contained knowledge that no one even knew existed. Grand Tourists were eager to visit to show off and transmit their wealth, education and importance in 18th century Britain.

One important Grand Tourist to look at is Sir William Hamilton. Fig. 2

In this painting, it is clear to see how Hamilton appropriated the furniture/ interior design he saw in Pompeii to suit his own needs. In other words, the table with a gold griffin as a table leg would likely have been made out of wood in the houses that actually featured this in Pompeii. Therefore, Hamilton is making it more luxurious and appropriating it so he looks even wealthier than he already is. As a side note, Allen has included a depiction of Mount Vesuvius erupting in the background. This is shown again in a painting of Lady Elizabeth Holland Fig. 3.

 

 

This is very common in paintings of the Grand Tourists, as most of them wanted to share how experienced and cultured they were to other upper class people. Furthermore, the painting also makes use of colours that are very common in original Pompeian paintings.  (Horace Walpole referred to these original discovered paintings by saying that they are “preferred to all the ancient paintings that have ever been discovered” (Horace Walpole’s Letters 1740, cited in Haggerty, 2011, p.63-65). This perfectly demonstrates how well received Pompeii and its artifacts were, since Walpole implies that anyone who is significant in society should own a Pompeian painting, as they are the height or sophistication and popularity.) Perhaps Allen included the red, gold and black colours in his painting as well as features common in the original paintings so others can instantly associate Hamilton with having the importance, education and wealth that allows one to travel to Pompeii. Also, these colours are very commonly used to decorate Pompeii influenced houses and halls, for example the Red Hall of Syon House. Fig. 5 This demonstrates how important interior design was in making Pompeii popular. However, I must critique this source and similar sources by saying that the paintings of the Grand Tourists were often greatly exaggerated in order to appear fancier to their audiences, so we cannot take the accuracy and exact features of the paintings as the complete truth, i.e. the reliability of these paintings must be questioned.  Although, these paintings do show how the popularity of Pompeii in the 18th century inspired artworks and interior designs that inspired others to go to Pompeii and see what they were missing out on, so they do offer an insight into how and why Pompeii gained popularity.

 

One rather extreme example of how Pompeii influenced the interior design back in Britain is the case of Grand Tourist William Wendell. He enjoyed the statues he witnessed in Pompeii so much, he shipped nineteen cases of them back to Britain. By hosting dinner parties surrounded by these statues, (evidence of how cultured he was), others were greatly encouraged to go to Pompeii. Also, having such grand décor confirmed Wendell’s social standing by proving his wealth, culture and experience, thus, increasing the popularity of Pompeii by making others want to achieve the same status.

 

From the 1760’s onwards, an architect and designer called Robert Adam was very active in remodeling stately houses to reflect a neoclassical interior design. One house that he adapted was Kenwood House in Hampstead Heath. He designed a hall here to look as if it was from Pompeii. He did this by using colour schemes inspired by Pompeii as well as motifs found in the Villa of Cicero, like honeysuckle motifs as well as arabesques. He also included enclaves in the walls for traditional Roman urns and busts. Fig.4 – Kenwood House

Again, this not a true representation of Pompeii, as it has been adapted to look much grander by, for example, using gold furnishings. Although, it does use original designs that would have been common in the houses of the richer citizens of Pompeii, like having pillars in the rooms and having paintings on the ceilings. So it can be argued that even though it is a pastiche of styles, it remains distinctly inspired by Pompeii, demonstrating the influence the popularity of Pompeii had in the 18th century.

 

Another significant home remodeled by Adam was Osterly Park. This was also designed in the 1760’s. One fascinating feature of the house that strongly shows the Pompeian influence is the slight peristyle visible from the front of the house. Fig. 5 There are also lots of Greek and Roman murals on the

stone, reflecting the influence of these popular styles. Also, the pillars are slender and very identifiably Pompeian.

 

 

This immense increase in wealthy people decorating their houses to reflect Pompeii caused a snowball affect in other wealthy people – they also wanted to be “in” on this trend. The beautiful interior design found in Pompeii and appropriated in Britain meant that it was the height of fashion to decorate your own home in a similar way, therefore increasing the popularity of and interest in Pompeii.

 

One aspect that greatly improved the popularity of Pompeii was the introduction of Le Antichità, a documentation of paintings, and sculptures from the houses of Pompeii. It also contained motifs from the Villa of Cicero that became very famous and were soon appropriated everywhere, especially in paintings and interior design. An example of these motifs is a depiction of a flying maenad Fig. 6 Other motifs include centaur couples.

“The plates in Le Antichità used the ancient world as inspiration; reality was merged with artistic license to produce something resembling the expectations of the eighteenth century” (Rediscovery and Reception booklet, Lindsey Annable). This helped to increase Pompeii’s popularity, as the illustrations in it incorporated fashionable ideas of the time, which made the Britons believe that the designs in Pompeii were more advanced than they actually were, another reason why these styles impacted so heavily on the interior design at the time. One advantage of having this as a source meant that impressive motifs could be documented before the Bourbon King at the time stopped any artistic copies of the ruins or artifacts being taken. However, since this document was mostly sketches that relied on the memory of the artists, it contained lots of inaccurate documentations that transmitted incorrect ideas of what the art in Pompeii was really like.  This meant that the depictions shown in Le Antichità could not really do justice to what the original motifs looked like in the Villa of Cicero. As well as this, Le Antichità only showed the motifs in isolation, but this was overcome by William Gell’s illustrations in the 19th century.  Motifs shown in both documents became very popular, and caused a huge increase in interior design influenced by Pompeii. For example, the Red Hall at Syon House, which has Pompeian Maenads on the ceiling. Fig. 7

This example, as well as many more, demonstrates the popularity of Pompeii – people wanted to be surrounded by Pompeian pastiches due to its increased popularity and exclusiveness for the upper class, (the only ones rich and cultured enough to acquire and appreciate the riches of Pompeii), so they did this by incorporating Pompeian styles and motifs into their interior design.

 

To summarise the key ideas of reception in this period (18th century), it really was just the preserve of the elite. In other words, no one but members of the upper class and the aristocracy simply had enough money to go and visit Pompeii in person, let alone transport paintings and statues back to the UK. These people shared their love of Pompeii with each other, encouraging others to go on their respective Grand Tours. The Grand Tourists also appropriated motifs, (especially those found in the Villa of Cicero), styles and artifacts to appear much grander, using artistic license to be able to impress others even more. These were often displayed in the forms of paintings, interior design and furniture. These items were very expensive, so only the very rich could furnish their houses with them. By doing so, it can be suggested that this helped to keep the popularity of Pompeii alive in Britain, as the Grand Tourists could constantly “experience” Pompeii without leaving their homes. Lastly, the Grand Tourists were seen as the only group in society that were able to properly appreciate the knowledge about what happened in Pompeii, and what the Pompeian’s left behind, so this social closure kept the enjoyment of Pompeii largely to just the upper class.

 

Reception and popularity of Pompeii in the 19th century

However, the advances made in the 19th century increased the popularity of Pompeii even more. Major changes to the excavations came about, for example having Giuseppe Fiorelli as the site supervisor, and disallowing tourists to just take home with them what they want. This helped to protect the site, and ensure that it was excavated carefully and with proper planning. Furthermore, by this time period, much more of Pompeii had been excavated than was available to the Grand Tourists, so it can be argued that there was more knowledge available to aid in the increasing awareness and love of Pompeii. Also, there was a great focus in the 19th century of people comparing their lives to the Pompeian’s, and wanting to discover how their lives compared to their own. There was also another surge in Pompeii inspired interior design.

 

One such designed place is the Pompeian Court at the Crystal Palace, London. Fig. 8 This was supposed to be a partial recreation of the House of the Tragic Poet, (discovered in 1824). The design for the Court was compiled from sketches done in Pompeii by Digby Wyatt. The Court burnt down in 1936, but records have provided us with the necessary information we need to assess the usefulness of the exhibition.

 

 

 

One way the interior design of Pompeii has been used in this Court is in the motif of a flying maenad (see arrow). Other ways include statues, columns and wall paintings, including those from the original House of the Tragic Poet. However, this apparent “authenticity” has been critiqued to be misleading. In other words, the designers of this place chose only the most popular and prestigious decorations and motifs to implement here, so the “overall schemes were pastiche”, (Hales and Earle, 2009). Hales and Earle thought this was “subject to modern taste, opinions and practical necessity” (Ibid). What this means is that the separate elements of the Court were put together in such a way that it was unrepresentative of the houses in Pompeii; the Court had been updated to fit “Victorian taste” (Ibid), and show off the new technology the Victorians had thanks to the Industrial Revolution. Therefore, the Court is not an accurate presentation of Pompeii, and the reliability must be questioned.

 

However, many people thoroughly enjoyed the inclusiveness created by this court. It was not expensive to go and experience a new situation that the majority of people wouldn’t have got to enjoy in person because of financial restraints. They Court was said to be fully immersive and “complete and perfect”, (Letter to the Editor, The Morning Post. 20th July 1854). The Court increased awareness and allowed Pompeii’s popularity to spread by allowing more people to access knowledge of it.

 

In conclusion, Pompeii experienced increasing popularity in the 18th and 19th centuries, partially due to the immense appropriations of Pompeii shown through interior design. For example, in the 18th century, Adam designed Kenwood House, Osterly Park and Syon House to reflect a classical Pompeian style. This continued into the 19th century when the popularity of Pompeii meant that the Pompeian Court was a must to create. These examples of show us that even though the design of these places was exaggerated at times to show the best of what Pompeii had to offer, they did contain relevant, accurate motifs and reconstructions of original Pompeian artifacts that inspired others to decorate their houses in this way too, popularising the ancient city of Pompeii.

 

Personally, I agree with the idea that “the fate of Pompeii may be compared to a man who only becomes famous after his death” – (Mattusch, 2013, p.4) This ideology encouraged people to become interested in Pompeii, as they wanted to experience and be the educated about this new, invaluable source of knowledge. As well as this, the source suggests that the city still had lots to offer, which was infinitely proven in the 19th century, in terms of new discoveries and appropriations including interior designs that expanded the current knowledge on the subject.

 

In terms of other ways I could have answered this complex question, I could have focused on paintings or illustrations to show the popularity of Pompeii, but I thought that interior design showed this popularity the best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Primary sources

·      Pliny the Younger, Letter to Cornelius Tacitus, 6.20, translated by B. Radice

·      Fig. 1 – https://ridiculouslyinteresting.com/2013/07/22/preserved-loaf-of-bread-discovered-at-pompeii/

·      Horace Walpole’s Letter, dated 14th June 1740, cited in Haggerty, 2011, Horace Walpole’s Letters: Masculinity and Friendship in the Eighteenth Century (Bucknell) p.63-65

·      Lady Charlotte Lindsey, letter dated 1815, Sweet, R. (2012) Cities and the Grand Tour: The British in Italy c. 1690-1820 (Cambridge) p.49

·      Mattusch, 2013, rediscovering the Ancient World on the Bay of Naples 1710-1890 (London) p.4

·      Fig. 4 – https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i=j==s=images==rja=8=0ahUKEwjJpMumqJTYAhUGIcAKHb5qCQMQjRwIBw=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Floraineashley47%2Fkenwood-house-hampstead-heath%2F=AOvVaw2s_Fg7OwECfP-kKvkgzUuI=1513609894968783

·      Fig. 5 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osterley_Park

·      Fig. 6 – https://www.pinterest.com/pin/539587599086688787/

·      Fig 7 – https://www.pinterest.co.uk/iconofile/robert-adam-neoclassical/ , plate 53 of Volume IV of Le Antichità (Maenad motif)

·      Fig. 8 – http://www.old-print.com/cgi-bin/item/L1120854007/search/35-Print-Plan-Pompeian-Court-Crystal-Palace-M-Digby-Wyatt-Architect-1854-007L112-Old-Original#

 

Secondary sources

·      Fig. 2 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hamilton_(diplomat)

·      Fig. 3 – https://intothebook.wordpress.com/2012/07/13/18th-century-papparazzi-profile-lady-elizabeth-webster-holland-12/

·      (Rediscovery and Reception: The Popularity of Pompeii in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain, Key Stage 5 Programme, Lindsey Annable)

·      Hales and Earle (2009), ‘Pompeii in the Crystal Palace: Comparing Victorian and Modern Virtual, Immersive Environments’, EVA 2009 London Conference, 6th-8th July, p.39.

·      Letter to the Editor, The Morning Post. 20th July 1854, 135

Disease to help with movement. This disease affects

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disease
& Disorder: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Nazariel De Jesus

University of
Massachusetts Lowell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            In this
paper I will be discussing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also sometimes
referred to still as Lou Gehrig’s disease. This is a disease that I have been
personally affected by and watching someone go through this type of pain and
strife is heartbreaking and extremely tough. ALS is a degenerative, extremely
fatal, disease that affects the brain and muscles. This is an attack on the
nervous system, the disease attacks the nerves in your brain (neurons) and in
your spinal cord. Neurons transmit messages to your spinal cord and voluntary
muscles to help with movement. This disease affects a person’s ability to move
and to speak. You end up losing all your strength and with that you end up
losing your will to live. The disease affects more men than women between the
ages of 40 and 60, but it definitely can be prevalent earlier or even later. It
occurs globally and has no racial, ethnic or socioeconomic boundaries. It
affects as many as 30,000 in the United States and there are about 5,000 new
cases diagnosed each year. Estimates suggest that ALS is responsible for as
many as five of every 100,000 deaths in people aged 20 or older. All cases of
ALS have resulted in death, it is not a disease that has a cure.

HISTORY

            Amyotrophic
Lateral Sclerosis was first discovered by Jean-Martin Charcot during the 1870s.
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and has been called “The Father of
Neurology” and was also able to explain way back when how the central nervous
system works with the limited technology of the time just by making personal
observations and writing down everything he saw. Lou Gehrig was the one who
engendered global attention to ALS in 1939. Lou Gehrig was a famous
baseball player who played for New York Yankees. “He was not playing well and knew
that something was physically wrong. Within a few months, Gehrig was diagnosed
with ALS. He died two years later. To this day, the disease is still most
closely associated with his name, often referred to as ‘Lou Gehrig’s Disease'”
(“Lou Gehrig and the History of ALS”,
2015). Another famous person who has been diagnosed with the disease is Stephen
Hawking. He has been able to live longer than anyone who has been diagnosed
with the disease. He was diagnosed with the disease at 21 and is 75 years old
today. He has been able to survive more than half a century with the fatal
disease, but still always remains on the brink of death. He is confined to his
wheelchair and has to talk through a special computer. Most people who are
diagnosed with the disease die in between 2 to 5 years of getting the disease.
“One thing that is highlighted by this man’s course is that this is an
incredibly variable disorder in many ways. On average people live two to three
years after diagnosis. But that means that half the people live longer, and
there are people who live for a long, long time” (Harmon, 2012). Unfortunately,
the percentage of people who do have a slow progressing form of ALS is less
than one percent.

ETIOLOGY

According to the Mayo Clinic, “ALS is inherited in 5 to 10 percent of cases, while the rest
have no known cause.” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2017). Research into ALS
has caused medical researchers to look at some of the theories of possible
causes of ALS. The first being gene mutation. In which they see, “Various
genetic mutations can lead to inherited ALS, which causes nearly the same symptoms
as the noninherited form.” The second being chemical imbalance, and their
theory with this one is “People with ALS generally have higher than normal
levels of glutamate, a chemical messenger in the brain, around the nerve cells
in their spinal fluid.” Excessive amounts are known to be harmful to nerve
cells. The third thing researchers are looking at is a disorganized immune
response as being part of the cause saying, “Sometimes a person’s immune system
begins attacking some of his or her body’s own normal cells” this actually
leads to death of nerve cells. Researchers are also looking at protein
mishandling. According to the Mayo Clinic, “Mishandled proteins within the
nerve cells may lead to a gradual accumulation of abnormal forms of these
proteins in the cells, destroying the nerve cells.” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,
2017). Some environmental factors might also be at play when talking about what
causes ALS. These factors include, smoking, environmental toxin exposure, even
though the cause of ALS cannot be driven down to a single chemical, and
military service.

SYMPTOMS

There are many early symptoms to ALS and they are all
progressive in the sense that with the disease and time a person has the
disease the symptoms only get progressively worse and worse. The early signs
and symptoms of ALS include difficulty walking/performing everyday activities,
tripping and falling, weakness in muscles such as your arms, hands, feet, and
legs, slurred speech and difficulty talking altogether, muscle cramps and
random uncontrollable twitching, and difficulty holding yourself up and keeping
good posture. “ALS often starts in the hands, feet or limbs, and then spreads
to other parts of your body. As the disease advances and nerve cells are
destroyed, your muscles progressively weaken. This eventually affects chewing,
swallowing, speaking and breathing. (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2017). The
disease ends in paralysis and when the muscles in the chest fail it leads to
respiratory failure which leads to death. This is how most people with the
disease die, from respiratory failure. Not all people with ALS experience the
same symptoms or same progression, but the progressive muscle weakness and the
extensive paralysis is prevalent across all people affected by ALS. The disease attacks solely the motor
neurons so the five senses are not affected. Excessive weight loss is also
experienced universally, even people who were athletes lose all their muscle
and are left with a frail weak body.

PROGNOSIS

All cases of ALS have resulted in death, no one has
successfully overcome the disease or have been cured. There is impairment to
motor neurons, which begin in the brain and results in muscle weakness and
muscle stiffness. The disease also damages motor neurons at the base of the
brain and spinal cord. Damage to these can cause muscle atrophy, which is
defined as the wasting away of muscles which goes in conjunction with the
severe weight loss. When the neurons in the brain are attacked, talking,
chewing, and swallowing become a lot more difficult.  When the motor
neurons in the spinal cord are harmed, movement is lost in the limbs, neck and
back obviously. This effects muscles you would normally be able to move on your
own, your voluntary muscles.

DIAGNOSIS

There is no specific test that can provide an actual
diagnosis for ALS. ALS is diagnosed based on the symptoms and your own account
of the history of your health observed by your doctor during your physical.
This is paired with a couple of tests to make sure you don’t have any other
types of diseases that have the same or similar symptoms. Your doctor will go
over your whole medical history with you and conduct some neurological tests to
test the symptoms such as muscle atrophy, weakness, and muscle stiffness to
check if they are getting progressively worse. To diagnose ALS a series of
tests must be used to rule out other diseases that have the same early
symptoms, these include muscle and imaging tests. These include EMGs, nerve
conduction studies, and MRIs. The EMG is “a special recording technique that
detects electrical activity of muscle fibers, can help diagnose ALS” the nerve
conduction study “measures electrical activity of the nerves and muscles by
assessing the nerve’s ability to send a signal along the nerve or to the
muscle. Specific abnormalities in the NCS and EMG may suggest, for example,
that the individual has a form of peripheral neuropathy (damage to peripheral
nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord) or myopathy (muscle disease)
rather than ALS” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). You
can also get an MRI done to outline some things that may be causing your
symptoms other than ALS, like a spinal cord tumor, a herniated disk in the
neck, a cyst in the spinal cord, or abnormal wear affecting the spine in the
neck. Lab tests can also be done to rule out the possibility of other diseases.
Your doctor might call for some bloodwork and urine tests just to make sure you
don’t have anything else. The diseases that are generally being tested for are
HIV, leukemia, polio, and the West Nile Virus. These diseases cause ALS like
symptoms, and neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis can also
imitate some of the symptoms of ALS. Other tests include spinal taps, in which
they extract and examine your spinal fluid, X-rays to see if your bones have
weakened, and muscle and nerve biopsies. “Because of the prognosis carried by
this diagnosis and the variety of diseases or disorders that can resemble ALS
in the early stages of the disease, individuals may wish to obtain a second
neurological opinion” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017).

TREATMENT

There is no cure for ALS but there are things that can be
done to help minimize the symptoms and maybe prolong life. There are also ways
to make living with the disease a little easier. First being a positive
attitude. Research has shown that those with a positive attitude of the disease
tend to live longer because of the psychological effects than those who give up
and lose their will to live. The best thing that can be done in the case of ALS
is just to make sure people are supported and comfortable. Right now there are
certain medications that can be used to help with the pain and symptoms. “The
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the drugs riluzole
(Rilutek) and edaravone (Radicava) to treat ALS. Riluzole is believed to
reduce damage to motor neurons by decreasing levels of glutamate, which
transports messages between nerve cells and motor neurons. Clinical trials in
people with ALS showed that riluzole prolongs survival by a few months,
particularly in the bulbar form of the disease, but does not reverse the
damage already done to motor neurons. Edaravone has been shown to slow
the decline in clinical assessment of daily functioning in persons with
ALS” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). Doctors will also
prescribe anti-depressants and sleep stimulants. Another form of “treatment”
that is used and isn’t necessarily helpful is physical therapy. It does nothing
for the disease but physical therapy can help a person with ALS gain some
independence throughout the disease which in turns will boost their own morale.
“Gentle, low-impact aerobic exercise such as walking, swimming, and stationary
bicycling can strengthen unaffected muscles, improve cardiovascular health, and
help people fight fatigue and depression. Range of motion and stretching
exercises can help prevent painful spasticity and shortening (contracture) of
muscles.” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). Another form
of “treatment” would be speech therapy. Since people with the disease find it
hard to speak, working with a speech therapist might help them communicate
better. “They can recommend aids such as computer-based speech synthesizers
that use eye-tracking technology and can help people develop ways for
responding to yes-or-no questions with their eyes or by other nonverbal means”
(Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). Forms of treatment that
provide benefit are also nutritional aid and breathing support. People with ALS
get weaker as they lose weight and they find it difficult to swallow food, so
nutrition is important to help prepare meals that provide enough of what a
person with the disease needs while avoiding hard to swallow foods. “People may
begin using suction devices to remove excess fluids or saliva and prevent
choking. When individuals can no longer get enough nourishment from eating,
doctors may advise inserting a feeding tube into the stomach. The use of a
feeding tube also reduces the risk of choking and pneumonia that can result
from inhaling liquids into the lungs” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact
Sheet, 2017). Breathing support is essential in all patients with ALS. With the
muscle atrophy, the muscles that aid in breathing begin to become weak. There
is extreme shortness of breath early on and it is hard to breathe when lying
down. “Doctors may test an individual’s breathing to determine when to
recommend a treatment called noninvasive ventilation (NIV). NIV refers to
breathing support that is usually delivered through a mask over the nose and/or
mouth. Initially, NIV may only be necessary at night. When muscles are no
longer able to maintain normal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, NIV may be
used full-time. NIV improves the quality of life and prolongs survival for many
people with ALS” (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017).  All these forms of treatment become very
costly and in the end some people find it not even worth it if it ends in death
anyways, but others are willing to fight until their last breath and for them
every bit is worth it if it means they get to spend more time on this earth.

CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN RESEARCH

Current research is being done primarily by the National
Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Their primary mission
being to learn anything they can about the nervous system to help with the
burden of neurological diseases. NINDS is part of the National Institutes of
Health (NIH) which is conducting the leading biomedical research. Current
research is looking at cellular defects. “Scientists are seeking to understand
the mechanisms that selectively trigger motor neurons to degenerate in ALS, and
to find effective approaches to halt the processes leading to cell death”. This
is being done by looking at animal and human cell structures, they are trying
to find out why ALS-causing gene mutations end up in the destruction and death
of neurons. “Research in these models suggests that, depending on the gene
mutation, motor neuron death is caused by a variety of cellular defects,
including in the processing of RNA molecules and recycling of proteins, and
structural impairments of motor neurons. Increasing evidence also suggests that
various types of glial support cells and inflammation cells of the nervous
system may play an important role in the disease. (Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). 
Research is also looking at stem cells by taking blood cells or skin
from people with the disease and turning them into stem cells. Current research
is also looking at biomarkers to help diagnose ALS earlier, and they are also
looking at new treatment options. Treatment options include developing new
medications and therapy options for the genes and the cells. “For example,
NINDS-supported scientists are currently investigating whether lowering levels
of the SOD1 enzyme in the brain and spinal cord of individuals with SOD1 gene
mutations would slow the rate of disease progression.” (Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet, 2017). 

REFLECTION/CONCLUSION

            ALS has personally affected me and I
never really did much research on it before, but after conducting research and
learning more about the disease I see it in a new light. My best friend’s dad was
diagnosed with ALS and he passed away about 2 years ago and it was the hardest
thing that I had to watch her go through and it was even harder watching her
dad go through it. He was diagnosed with the disease only about 5 years ago and
you honestly wouldn’t even be able to tell from the start of it. It was so
unfair, he was so healthy. He ate right and exercised constantly, so for him to
be what it seemed like punished with this disease did not seem right. He still
lived his life with joy and kept his head high. He was extremely prideful and
never asked for any help, even when he couldn’t even stand. He found a way to
say what he wanted, he found a way to eat what he wanted, and he found a way to
get to where he wanted to until the paralysis was so bad he couldn’t even raise
his arms. He lost a significant amount of weight and ended up being bed ridden.
He never left the room but enjoyed visitors. There were always people in and
out, every second of everyday. But every day, he still smiled the same he still
said hi the same, and he kept fighting. He wanted to see his daughter graduate
high school and he did. He was able to see her go to prom, get her first car,
and even get accepted into college. I tried to be there as much as I could for
my friend and in turn I ended up experiencing a lot of the pain and suffering
the family had to go through to take care of him and watch him basically die in
front of them. Her dad waited until last minute of everything to get all the
different types of treatment options. He didn’t get a ramp put outside until he
couldn’t walk anymore, he didn’t get one of the special beds until he couldn’t
sit up anymore, he didn’t even get a wheelchair until it was too hard for him
to walk. He never had an in-home nurse and he was never sent to hospice care.
When the time came, I was there. We were all there and it happened so
peacefully as many other have described their own experience about loved ones.
It was like he knew though, he told every one of us he loved us the night
before and then he fell asleep. When morning came, he just didn’t wake up.
After writing this paper and conducting the research I see just how strong my
friend’s father was. Exactly what he had to go through, what the kind of things
that were happening in his body and his mind. He never gave up his will to live
though, and that I will cherish forever.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis. (2017, May 12). Retrieved November 25, 2017, from

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354022

Amyotrophic
Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2017, from

            https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-

            Sheets/Amyotrophic-Lateral-Sclerosis-ALS-Fact-Sheet

Harmon, K.
(2012, January 07). How Has Stephen Hawking Lived Past 70 with ALS? Retrieved

            November 25, 2017, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/stephen-hawking-

            als/

Lou Gehrig and
the History of ALS. (2015). Retrieved November 25, 2017, from

            http://www.alstexas.org/understanding-als/lou-gehrig/

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indefinite a vowel). An is used when the

Indefinite
articles in English

            Indefinite
article in English refers to two words – a
and an. Indefinite means not specific. Just like other articles,
these words are invariable. It shows that the following noun is not a specific
one or is being mentioned for the first time. The speaker might be making a
general statement about a specific thing 1. One or the other is used
depending on the first letter of the word that is following the article, mainly
for pronunciation reasons. A is used
when the next word starts with a consonant sound (even if spelled with a
vowel). An is used when the next word
starts with a vowel sound (even if spelled with an initial consonant) like a, e,
i, o, u or with a mute h. The use of an before words beginning with silent h is more common generally in British English than in American. A or an
cannot be used with plural nouns, because a,
an means one or a single. Some examples on the use of
indefinite articles when the next word starts with a consonant or vowel include:

·        
a girl;

·        
a big animal;

·        
an ugly shirt;

·        
an hour.

The use of indefinite articles can be
divided in 7 sections. The indefinite article is used:

1.     
To
refer to something for the first time

Example:         ‘Would
you like a drink?’;

                        I
have finally found a good, well-paying job;

                        An
elephant and a mouse fell in love.

2.     
Meaning
‘one’, referring to a single object or person

Example:         ‘I
would like an orange and two limes, please.’

3.     
With
names of jobs

Example:         Johnny
is a doctor;

                        Linda
is training to be an engineer;

                        She
wants to be a dancer.

4.     
With
nationalities and religions

Example:         John
is an Englishman;

                        Katy
is a Catholic.

5.     
To
refer to a kind of or example of something

Example:         The
mouse had a tiny nose;

                        It
was a very strange house.

6.     
With
singular nouns, after the words ‘what’ and ‘such’

Example:         What
a shame!;

                        She
is such a beautiful girl.

7.     
After
‘there is’

Example:         There
is a shoe on the floor;

                        There
is a notebook on the table.

 

A
or an is also used when asking about
the existence of something, e.g.:

·        
I
have finally got a new job (new information to the listener);

·        
Would
you like to have a drink? (question about the drink is being introduced
for the first time);

·        
Is
there a book in your backpack? (asking about the existence of the book)

Mainly these
articles are used when someone is talking about a thing in general, not
mentioning anything specific. Examples:

·        
Do
you have a driver’s license? (in general);

·        
Lizzy
wants a computer (not a particular computer, a computer in general);

·        
I
need a car (not a particular car, a car in general).

Use a
or an when introducing a type of
thing the speaker and the listener are talking about, e.g.:

·        
That
is an excellent movie (describing the kind of movie);

·        
Do
you live in a big apartment? (asking about the kind of apartment).

Men Kenosha Comets, and the South Bend Blue

  Men fighting in the war women at home fighting in the box.  A League of Their Own was made in 1992 by Columbia Pictures Corporation and Parkway Productions. A League of Their own was set in the 1940’s and 1950’s during World War II. A League of Their own has many historical inaccuracies such as how in the movie only the Rockford Peaches and the Racine Belles play in the World Series but in history, there are four teams that play in the World Series they were the Racine Belles, Rockford Peaches, Kenosha Comets, and the South Bend Blue Sox. However, A League of Their own did have some accuracies such as while playing on the team there was no smoking, no drinking, and absolutely no men. I say that this movie is most certainly more hollywood than history.                A League of Their own takes place during The Second World War and that means that all the men have to leave and go serve our country. While the men are out at war Philip K. Wrigley or better known as the owner of the Chicago Cubs Baseball team decides to make an All American Girls Baseball League. Philip K. Wrigley decides to make this league because he fears the sense the men are away baseball will die out and that no one will want to come watch America’s National pastime’ so Wrigley holds the first ever All American Girls Baseball League tryouts. Female baseball players are being drafted from all around the states. This seemed like a great chance for Dottie and Kit1 , to leave their farm and get a look at the big city. Dottie and Kit are found by a scout named Ernie Capadino. Ernie Capadino decides to bring the girls back to Chicago for tryouts. Dottie and Kit make the league with fellow teammates including Doris Murphy (Rosie O’Donnell) and Mae Mordabito (Madonna).           As the season goes on, after all of the practices are over the first game comes and in the movie, it’s a regulation field size but in history, it’s some weird hybrid between a baseball field and a what is now today a softball field. In the movie, the girls threw overhand like men do today but according to history they threw underhand like softball. Kit shows that she is enormously jealous of her sister Dotti. Dotti’s playing style and the fact that everyone loves and adores her and her fantastic playing skills makes Kit’s hatred against her sister grow. After all of this hatred is bottled up Kit then decides to change baseball teams and finds herself playing against her sister in the final of the World Series2. The theme of A League of Their Own was showing that women didn’t just belong in the kitchen and looking after kids, that they actually are able to play a physical sport that people thought that only men could play. The only place for a woman is at home, first, second, and third. the message of the film is smack dab in the clear, and it’s that women don’t only belong in the kitchen, but are able to have careers and play sports.            Jimmy Dugan is the coach of the Rockford Peaches. Dugan was a drunk after he hurt his leg playing for the Red Sox. Dugan was left depressed and found comfort at the bottom of a bottle. Dugan was a mean drunk when he got forced to coach the Rockford peaches he would often yell at the girls and make them cry. Jimmy Dugan was a loose interpretation of Jimmie Foxx, Jimmie Foxx was the real coach but he didn’t coach the Rockford Peaches he actually coached the Fort Wayne Daisies.             At the end of the movie, Dottie has returned to the field where it all started and as she’s on the field the ball she’s holding drops and rolls over to an African American woman. The woman throws the ball viciously back at Dottie, but, in fact, African American women were not allowed to be on the field because segregation was still happening back in the 40’s and 50’s3. After seeing all these facts, the verdict is that A League of Their Own is more Hollywood than History. Former baseball player Doris Sams said, “I thought it was about 30 percent truth and 70 percent Hollywood.” In baseball, a .300 batting average is good. In telling a “true” story, .300 is not so hot.4 

As are living in. Some studies show that

As we look and observe around the world, we can see a huge amount charitable, empathy and unselfish behaviour which leads to the opposite of the teachings of neoclassical economics theory. Most of the time, due to the wrong predictions of economic theory, economists are surprised by the outcome of the final game which appear that human being frequently prefer to take a loss rather than be treated unjustly (Camerer, 2003). Dominant Western theories of human behaviour are considerably removed from the reality that we are living in. Some studies show that the operations and processes that promote the creation of wealth in the West have insignificant correlation with the economic theory that we found in neoclassical textbooks. Over the past few years, continuous efforts by determined economist to conduct the lessons of these theories to attain economic development have continuously failed. Therefore, empirical evidence strongly recommends Islamic views compared to the one that is being taught in current conventional economic texts. In perfect competition, economists believe that free markets are the solution to every economic problem. Since there are no distortions in prices and no limitation on firms, the profit motive will by itself lead to optimal and efficient allocation of resources. Also, people are not restricted from pursuing self-interest hence, will lead to socially optimal outcomes. For example, laissez-faire economics have been documented all over the world. Economists from a top World Bank try to seek a quick transformation of the Russian economy to free market and anticipated miracles following a shock treatment. It is known that the previous communist economic system was inefficient and required reform but nevertheless, it was able to produce enough output to feed the people and satisfy the requirements of the economic. Farkas (1998) mentions that industrial production collapsed by 50% due to the World Bank reforms and the predicted gains from changing to the free market competition did not happen. Consequently, World Bank economists have written tracts explaining this failure and blaming it on Russian for their inexperience with free markets, corruption, and other factors. Whatever the reasons, the free markets and perfect competition have been proven a failure on countless occasions which leads to hunger, deprivation, misery, and massive income inequalities. The most obvious example is the Great Depression where the supply and demand operations supposed to bring about full employment has also lead to failure. A lot of experiments related to free markets, perfect competition and economic liberalization lead to the same result; increasing centration of wealth in hands of the rich and social tensions and misery both directly as a result of increasing poverty and because of the frictions created by broadening the gaps between the rich and the poor. The neoclassical economics teachings are different than the Quranic teachings. The Quranic call for the circulation of wealth by emphasizing cooperation, and encourage the rich and powerful to take care of the weak and needy. By implementing this mechanism, it will build societies which are rich spiritually, morally, and materially.The assumptions of economic theory do not match observed behaviours in almost every field. It can be proved when economists tried to check for the relationship between the core neoclassical assumptions of utility maximization and profit maximization, and the actual behaviour of consumers and firms. The “As-If” philosophy has been created by Friedman which mentions that if a theory produces valid predictions, the unrealistic assumptions which are different than the actual behaviour do not affect the validity of the theory. This shows how neoclassical theory is not convenient in predictions or in policy decisions. People who are involving in business of selling goods are expected to have more understanding in consumer theory than theorist themselves. Economists believe that consumers are making choices based on the preferences given. However, this has not always been true as mentioned by Ariely et al. (2003) that choice generally made at random and preferences are created according to the choices made by the consumers. For example, the act of choosing X over Y may create a preference for X and most of the time preferences are influenced by desire, social norms, advertising, and moral and spiritual concerns. In economic affairs, it is descriptively accurate to state that self-interest mainly motivates people to spend. In secular society, it is considered as an ethical commitment that preferences may not be questioned because different people have their own religions and values. On the other hand, Islamic values disagree with this ethical commitment because there are significant differences between preferences and desires but at the same time, Islam allows and encourages fulfilment legitimate and rational desires as mentioned in the Quran from surah Al-A’raf:(7:32) “Say (0 Muhammad): ‘Who has forbidden the adornment which Allah has brought forth for His creatures or the good things from among the means of sustenance? Say: ‘These are for the enjoyment of the believers in this world, and shall be exclusively theirs on the Day of Resurrection.’ Thus, do We clearly expound Our revelations for those who have knowledge.”Also, it strongly discourages pursuit of idle desires as mentioned below from surah Al-Jathiyah:(45:23) “Did you ever consider the case of him who took his desire as his god, and then Allah caused him to go astray despite knowledge, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and cast a veil over his sight? Who, after Allah, can direct him to the Right Way? Will you not take heed?”Islam also forbid excessive spending (Israf), spending on forbidden products (Tabzeer), conspicuous spending for the sake of being envied by other people. Instead, Islam strongly encourages spending to seek Allah’s pleasure which means spending on others and on useful social causes. By following Quranic prescriptions, it will lead us to economics based on simple lifestyles, hospitality, cooperation, and trust of a type which cannot be pictured within a neoclassical framework. To describe human being as selfish by not criticizing it is a value of judgment that selfishness is ethically permissible. Kirchgässner (2005) shows that economists behave more selfishly compared to those in other disciplines. In most societies, people are taught to cooperate and help each other which can lead to good social outcomes. However, this is not the same case as how economists describe it. Economists teach that selfishness leads to good social outcome and as a result, they become more selfish than others which shows that neoclassical economic theory is normative and generate selfishness. For this reason, economist find it hard to understand and accept experimental results that prove otherwise because most people understand human behaviour as a mix motives which is different than economics theoretical framework. For example, Camerer (2003) describes that “If I had a dollar for every time an economist claimed that raising stakes would drive the ultimatum behaviour towards self-interest, I’d have a private jet and standby all day”. In neoclassical theory, it uses straight-thinking arguments to declare that firms maximize profits by saying that they would not survive if they did not do so, or a corporate raid would allow takeover, et cetera. Several studies mentioned that actual firm behaviour yields strong evidence against the profit maximization hypothesis as provided by the theory. Numerous reasons have been discovered as to why firms may fail to maximize profits and continue to survive, and not be taken over in corporate raids. The theory of ‘near rationality’ exhibit that approximate maximization of profits by firms may result to exceedingly different outcomes from those predicted by neoclassical theory of exact maximization. This is because firms have market power, actively seek to increase power through branding, and other marketing and production strategies to maintain their firm. Greenwald and Stiglitz (1991) have mentioned that when informational constraints are considered, the theory of the firm is radically changed and therefore, neoclassical conceptions of the firm become invalid. These theoretical frameworks to match observed behaviour of firms cause doubt on the nature of the supply curve, which is one of the fundamental pillars of neoclassical economic theory.  The most significant difference between neoclassical and Islamic views on the production process is the implication for ethical behaviour for firms. Nobel Laureate Milton Friedman (2005) argues that it is the responsibility of firms to pursue wealth, not social goals and this statement has been widely accepted in capitalist ethics. Consequently, this idea has led to immoral actions on the part of multinationals. For example, to kill babies for a dollar, mothers are given a sufficiently great supply of powdered baby milk to stop lactation. This shows that good ethics are ignored if bad ones will lead to even higher profits. This is because to firm, reputation is more important than genuine efforts to change things for better, especially if the genuine efforts require cost. There are two main issues where Islamic views are different than the capitalist views:1. The powdered milk producers do not consider themselves responsible for the wrong use of the formula by mothers which leads to death of babies. In Islam, each one of the parties share responsibilities for the outcome. 2. Economists claim that only observable matter while the hidden does not. For example, the act of giving charity matters and the intention behind it does not. In Islam, intentions matter. People who give charity with the intention of becoming popular will be sent to the hellfire. Therefore, the idea of being socially responsible to gain more profits is not acceptable in Islam.Supply and demand is perhaps one of the most fundamental concepts of economics as mentioned above and it is the backbone of a market economy. Because of this, we find it difficult to realize that supply and demand curves only occur in the mind of the economists and it does not have any significant existence. The demand curve is a “thought experiment” and it can never actually be observed. The theories of supply, demand and equilibrium price which lie at the heart of modern classical economics are greatly flawed and all further analysis that uses sophisticated mathematical tools also share these flaws. A well-known famous institutional economist and Nobel laureate Douglass North mentions that “We live in an uncertain and ever-changing world that is continually evolving in new and novel ways. Standard theories are of little help in this context. Attempting to understand economic, political and social change requires a fundamental recasting of the way we think.” Demand curve is not well-defined because consumer cannot answer the question of what he would buy since there are many determinants of his decision have not been specified. Supply curve does not depend merely on market price, but also on the type of market structure as well as types of strategic interrelationship between different firms in the market. Therefore, demand and supply curves are not observable and cannot be the basis of a scientific theory.

In generally treated by benzodiazepines, buspirone, and antidepressant

    In the world about 40% of the people suffering from central nervous system diseases develop the symptoms of anxiety 1 and suffer from insomnia. Statistically, 10% of the world population suffers from several forms of anxiety 2 and 30% of the adult population has insomnia 3. Even today, traditional medicine is still the predominant means of health care in developing countries where about 80% of their total population depends on  it for their wellbeing 4. Anxiety disorders are generally treated by benzodiazepines, buspirone, and antidepressant drugs; although these drugs are clinically effective, but are associated with several problems 5, 6. For example, in spite of their relative safety, benzodiazepines can lead to disturbing effects such as amnesia, dependence liability, and sedation, which cause considerable concern. Thus, there is a need for the development of safer anxiolytic drugs.

    In Ayurvedic system of medicine, the Erythrina species (Fabaceae), including Erythrina variegata Linn. are frequently used as anxiolytic, anthelmintics, carminatives, febrifuge, diuretics, expectorant and in rheumatism and skin diseases. Erythrina variegata Linn. (Fabaceae) commonly known as Mandar, is an erect, deciduous tree with dense branches and black spine. Bark is yellowish-grey and smooth. Leaves are trifoliate, leaflets are broadly ovate, acute and smooth. Flowers are pea shaped and red in colour 7. Phytochemical screening of three extracts (petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous) of leaves indicated presence of alkaloid, flavnoids, saponin glycosides and steroidal compounds. Literature survey revealed that Erythrina variegata have antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic 8, anti-inflammatory 9, antibacterial and osteoprotective activity10, which have scientific justified data; however there are stem bark of Erythrina variegata reported  about the anxiolytic activity but there is no activity on leaves of this plant.

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the anxiolytic (elevated plus-maze) and sedative (spontaneous locomotor activity by Rota rod apparatus), effects of methanolic extracts of leaves of Erythrina variegata in rat models. The effects were compared to those of standard drug generally administered for the treatment of anxiety (diazepam).

Materials and Methods

Collection and authentication of plant material

   The leaves of Erythrina variegata were obtained from a commercial supplier and were authenticated by Dr. H.B. Singh, Principal Scientist, National Institute of Sciences Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi, India. A voucher specimen has been deposited at the NISCAIR Herbarium (NISCAIR/RHMD/consult/2009-10/1307/110 dated November 06, 2009)

Preparation of Extract

   Powdered plant material (100 g) was extracted with 95 % methanol using Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure till the semi solid mass was obtained. The extract was stored in the refrigerator and a weighed amount was suspended in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) prior to administration.

Animals

    Wistar rats (160-240 g) and mice (25-35 g) of either sex were obtained from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. The animals were housed in polypropylene cage under standard conditions (25 ± 2 0C, 12 h light and dark cycle) fed with standard pellet feed (Ashirwad Industries, Mohali, Punjab) and water ad libitum.  All the experimental procedures and protocols involving animals were reviewed by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (Registration number: 1279/ac/09/CPCSEA) and were in accordance with the guidelines of CPCSEA.

Phytochemical testing

    Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata was carried out to test the presence of the active chemical constituents such as carbohydrate, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, protein, triterpenoids, and saponin 11.

 

Acute toxicity study

     The methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (MEEV) was administered orally in doses of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/kg to the groups of mice (n = 6) and percentage mortality was noted 24 h later.

Behavioral studies

    In the acute experiments, each animal was subjected to only one behavioral test, whereas in the chronic experiments, the same animal was subjected to the elevated plus-maze and Rota rod apparatus test with an interval of 24 h.

Elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats

    The EPM experiments were carried out in a sound attenuated, temperature controlled (23 ± 10C) room. The environment was illuminated by two 40-W fluorescent lights placed 1.3 m away from the EPM. The plus shaped maze consisted of two opposite open arms (50 × 10 cm), crossed at a right angle by two arms of the same dimensions enclosed by 50-cm high walls with no roof. The maze was located 50 cm above the floor. Rats naturally avoid the open arms of the elevated plus maze and anxiolytic compounds typically increase the exploration of these arms without changing the number of enclosed arm entries 12. Twenty four rats were divided into four groups each containing six rats. The first group received normal saline 5 ml/kg body weight i.p, the second group was injected with diazepam 1 mg/kg i.p, third and fourth groups received 10 and 20 mg/kg of methanolic extract of leaves of Erythrina variegata, respectively. The parameters observed were number of entries in the open and closed arms and time of permanence in the open arms. The first and the last parameters were expressed in percentage. A rat was considered to have entered an arm when all four legs were on the arm. The number of entries in the closed arms was considered as the locomotor activity index and the percentage of the time spent and percentage of entries on the open arms as the anxiety index 13, 14.

Rota-rod test in rats

    The rats were preselected 1 day before the test on the rotating rod (3 cm in diameter, 20 r.p.m.). The animals that held onto the rotating rod for 2 minutes were placed again on the same rotating rod on the next day, and were observed for 2 minutes. The number of animals falling off the Rota-rod within 2 minutes was recorded 15.

Statistical analysis

    The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test using Graph Pad Prism 5 software. The difference of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Yield of plant extract     100 g of powdered leaves of Erythrina variegata was taken for extraction with petroleum ether, methanol and water. The yield of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract was found to be 9.83, 24.1 and 7.77 % w/w respectively.     Phytochemical testing     Phytochemical testing showed that petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Erythrina variegata contain alkaloid, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and steroidal compounds. Acute toxicity study     The result of the acute oral administration of methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata in various doses of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/kg indicated no mortality up to 7 days after treatment. Behavior studiesElevated Plus Maze Test     The results of the elevated plus-maze test are shown in Table 1. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference in number of entries into open arms by the Erythrina variegata (20 mg/kg) and diazepam treated groups in comparison to the control.  In the treatment, both diazepam and the extract (20 mg/kg) also increased the percentage time spent in the open arm when compared with vehicle-treated rats. Rota rod test     The effect of Erythrina variegata on the fall off time in Rota rod test is presented in Table 2. ANOVA showed a significant difference in the effects of methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (20 mg/kg) and diazepam when compared with vehicle.   Discussion     Anxiety induces a particular form of behavioural inhibition, which occurs in response to environmental events that are novel, non-rewarding (under conditions where reward is expected) or punishing. In animals, this behavioural inhibition may take the form of immobility, or suppression of a behavioural response. Development of new anxiolytic drugs requires animal testing that give a good guide to activity in humans, and much ingenuity has gone into developing and validating such tests. For example, a rat placed in an unfamiliar environment normally responds by remaining immobile, though alert behavioural suppression for a time which may represent 'anxiety' produced by the strange environment. This immobility is reduced if anxiolytic drugs are administered. The 'elevated plus-maze' is a widely used test model for anxiolytic activity. Two arms of the raised horizontal cross are closed in, and the others are open. Normally rats spend most of their time in the closed arms and avoid the open arms. Administration of anxiolytic drugs increases the time spent in the open arms and also increases the mobility of the rats, as judged by the frequency of crossing the intersection 16. The results of the present study indicated that the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata leaves possesses significant anxiolytic activity as evidenced by the increased in number of entries and time spend in open arms as compared to the control. The activity was found to be comparable to the standard drug.     On the other hand, loss of coordinated motor movement is one of the pharmacological effects of anxiolytics drugs. The effect of Erythrina variegata methanolic extract on coordinated motor movement was assessed using rota rod test. The latency (in seconds) to drop off the rota rod was recorded up to a limit 120 second 17. In the present study, statistical analysis of the latency to fall from the rota rod revealed that oral administration of Erythrina variegata leaves at 20 mg/kg and diazepam produced significant motor incoordination compared to vehicle control. The phytochemical tests of methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata leaves showed the presence of various phytoconstituents viz. alkaloid, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and steroidal compounds. It is reported that flavonoid and terpenes compounds have anxiolytic property, which partially explains the reason for such activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Erythrina variegata. Further studies are warranted to isolate the anxiolytic compound and to elucidate their exact mechanism of action. Conclusion     It may be concluded, that the methanolic extract of leaves of Erythrina variegata has an anxiolytic effect and this extract has potential for clinical use in the treatment of anxiety which support its traditional uses. Conflict of interest statement The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest. Acknowledgements     The Authors would like to thank all faculty members of School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University for their technical assistance.   Reference Gurib-Fakim, A., 2006. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of to morrow. Mol. Asp. Med. 27, 193. WHO, 2001. Mental and neurological disorders. Fact Sheet 25. Werner, K., 2008. Insomnie chronique. Forum Med. Suisses 8, 426431. WHO, 2003. WHO calls on African governments to formally recognize traditional medicine. Johannesburg, South Africa. Geneva. Andreatini R, Boerngen LR, Zorzetto FD, Tratamento farmacol o´ gico do transtorno de  ansiedade generalizada: perspectivas futuras, Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 2001, 23, 233–242. Mitte K, Noack P, Steil R, Hautzinger M, A meta-analytic review of the efficacy of drug treatment in generalized anxiety disorder, J Clin Psychopharm, 2005, 25, 141–150. Shah R, Nature's medicinal plants of Utttarnchal. Gyanodaya Prakashan Nainital, 2006, 1, 181-182. Balamurugan G, Shantha A, Effect of Erythrina variegata seed extract on hyperlipidemia elicited by high-fat diet in Wister rats, J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2010, 2(4), 350–355. Balamurugan G, Sajja S, Balakrishnan D, Selvarajan S, In vitro anti-inflammatory action of Erythrina variegata (L.) Leaves by HRBC membrane stabilization, Int J Drug Dev & Res, 2010, 2(3), 669-672. Zhang Y, Li Q, Li X, Wan HY, Wong MS, Erythrina variegata extract exerts osteoprotective effects by suppression of the process of bone resorption, Br J Nutr, 2010, 104 (7), 965-71. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB, Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, Pune, 2005, 20, 133-525.  Jardim MC, Guimaraes FS, Role of glutamate ionotropic receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus on anxiety and locomotor behavior, Pharmacol Biochem Be, 2004, 79, 541–546. Lister RG, The use of a plus maze to measure anxiety in the mouse, Psychopharmacology, 1987, 92,180–185. Vargas KM, Da CC, Andreatini R, Amphetamine and pentylenetetrazole given post-trial 1 enhance one-trial tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of diazepam in the elevated plus-maze in mice, Prog Neuro-Psychoph, 2006, 30, 1394–1402. Kaur T, Pathak CM, Pandhi P, Khanduja KL, Effects of green tea extract on learning, memory, behavior and acetyl cholinesterase activity in young and old male rats, Brain Cognition, 2008, 67, 25–30. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK, Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 2003, 515–516. Shafaghi B, Naderi N, Tahmasb L, Kamalinejad M, Anxiolytic Effect of Echium amoenum L. in Mice, Iran J Pharm Res, 2002, 1,37-41

Le va permettre l’un a l’autre de mieux

Le petit prince est un conte poétique et philosophique qui prend la forme d’un conte pour enfant. En réalité c’est un conte qui s’adresse aux adultes et aux enfants qu’ils ont été.Le livre narre d’une rencontre entre un aviateur perdu dans le désert et un petit garçon venu d’une autre planète. Une rencontre d’un enfant et un homme à qui l’on a brisé les rêves alors qu’il était petit. Leur dialogue va permettre l’un a l’autre de mieux comprendre le sens a donner a la vie. L’homme va découvrir la vraie valeur des choses, les priorités de vie. Je vais essayer, sous forme d’une lettre d’un grand-père à son grand-fils, de capturer l’essentiel du sens symbolique du livre; on doit rester connecté à ce qui est vraiment important, on paie le prix de l’innocence pour nourrir notre ego, on oublie la valeur d’un lien que l’on tisse avec les autresMon cher Jacques,Maintenant que je suis vieux, je me souviens de tous les moments joyeux, les difficultés et les échecs. Je repense à toutes ces années bien trop parties.  La plupart des moments importants de ma vie se sont produit quand j’étais un jeune homme et ils ont formé mon caractère et façonne mon destin.J’ai toujours voulu le meilleur pour toi et j’ai tenté de d’aplanir la route.  Par consequent, je veux te laisser une serie de leçons nourries de mon experience personnelle. Les leçons de vie s’apprennent tout au long de notre vie.J’ai appris que je savais beaucoup de choses avec ma tête et peu de choses avec mon coeur. Il vaut mieux choisir avec son coeur. La spontanéité des sentiments est très important.Pour être bien dans notre peau, ne soyons pas trop sérieux. Ne perds jamais ce petit grain de folie qui te pousse à imaginer et créer lorsque tu étais enfant. Renoue avec la créativité d’enfant. Il faut jamais oublier la puissance de l’imagination. Partage tes reves avec ceux qui sont capables de rêver. J’ai appris que l’essentiel est invisible pour les yeux. Il faut se débarrasser de tout superficialités, de tout matérialisme. L’adulte perd les vraies valeurs a cause de l’argent et du pouvoir. Oublie ton ego et recherche l’essentiel. Tu n’as pas besoin de titre pour te sentir mieux ou au-dessus des autres. Il faut regarder en-dessous de la surface, se laisser aller, inventer, etre curieux, poser les bonnes questions. Prendre du temps pour soi est la clé du Bonheur. Il faut profiter de la vie, il faut apprécier chaque instant qui passe.L’homme n’existe vraiment que par rapport a ce qu’il fait pour les autres. L’amour est la plus grande force qui existe sur terre. Aimer n’est pas posséder, mais donner de soi et de son temps. Aimer n’est pas rechercher ce qui correspond totalement à nos aspirations. On crée souvent des problèmes par manque de patience, manque de savoir écouter, manque de savoir aimer et chercher loin ce que l’on a sous les yeux.J’espère que tu auras le courage de partir a la decouverte. Ouvre les portes vers de nouveaux horizons. On a tendance a rester dans sa ‘zone de confort car c’est plus facile que de prendre des risques. Il faut vivre des expériences diverses, rencontrer des gens, parcourir le monde. C’est dur sur le moral en cours de route, mais un échec  n’est qu’une invitation à essayer de nouveau.Il faut une discipline quotidienne même si cela est ennuyeux.Rappelle-toi de cela, surtout pendant les moment difficiles.Je t’aime de tout mon coeur,Ton grand-pere

The because of this and almost half of

The 1929 stock market crash was the beginning of America’s worst
nightmare, also known as the Great Depression, which had lasted for ten years
sadly. As this turn of event transpired billions of dollars had been lost while
taking out thousands of investors. The country was in devastation because the
economy was failing and everyone effected by it. So many had lost their jobs
because of this and almost half of the banks in America during the time had
gone bankrupt. This wasn’t exclusively reason of the great depression, but it
did act to quicken the worldly collapse of the economy.

There are multiple reasons for what caused the 1929 stock
market crash: One reason was because of the fact high investment led to the
rise in stock prices. Another reason
is that regular people that invested invented their money into the market hoped
for short-term benefits of wealth instead of looking for long-term assets. Also banks had invested their
customer’s money into the market without letting know what was happening. Farmers weren’t able to payoff the
banks that loaned them money. Furthermore
these same banks had loaned money to foreign countries who occasionally didn’t
pay back the advances that they where given.

It is believed that on the disastrous day of October 29, 1929,
more than 16 million stocks had been trade and because of the crash the market
had unfortunately lost about $14 billion that day. During this time period the country had an enormous amount of
people unemployed because of the great depression. It is said by 1933, the joblessness rate had increased from 3% to
25%, so basically of 15 million Americans had lost their occupations. Since so many people had lost their
jobs during the great depression, this resulted in a lot of people losing their
homes since they couldn’t afford them. I
find all of this to be sad but interesting because of the fact that since the
banks where loaning money to people that could never payback, which ended up
forcing the economy to squander money and people to lose their livelihood.

Surprisingly, the main industry that was actually doing well was
the film production in Hollywood. “It is thought that people went to the movies
because, for a brief time while at the movie, they could forget their many
hardships. Comedies were big at this time and the Three Stooges provided a
great deal of entertainment for many. The Wizard of Oz was released during this
period in 1939.”(The Great Depression Facts, Timeline, Causes, Pictures) The
timeline of the Great Depression has multiple dates, for example in the
beginning of it all president Herbert Hoover came in to office on March 4,
1929.

During his tenure, this man had increased the protection for
employees of the government, “canceled
private oil leases on federal property, and directed the FBI to arrest Al
Capone. He added 5.3 million acres to federal parks and forests, and planned
for dams in the Tennessee Valley. He established the Federal Farm Board to help
farmers raise prices. He lowered the top income tax rate from 25 percent
to 24 percent”. (Amadeo, K.) In august of that year was when the roaring twenties had
reached its climax. The roaring twenties was a time when a lot of people
challenged Prohibition, spoiled themselves in new ways of dancing and dressing,
and rejected the moral standards of that time.

There are a lot of events that started the Great Depression, these
events are the stock market crash of 1929, bank failures, the reduction in
purchasing across the board, the American economic policy with Europe, and the drought
conditions. First is the Stock
Market Crash of 1929, a lot people consider, inaccurately that this day is the
same as the day of the infamous hopelessness that took hold of the country. But
it actually “Black Tuesday” is one of the events that started the Great
Depression. After that was the fact
that during the course of 30s so many banks had failed. This was because the
“bank deposits were uninsured and thus as banks failed people simply lost their
savings.

Surviving banks, unsure of the economic situation and concerned
for their own survival, stopped being as willing to create new loans. This
exacerbated the situation leading to less and less expenditures.” (Cland.k12.ky.us, 2017) Then
their was the reduction in purchasing across the board, basically what happened
here was that once the market had crashed, people from all social and
economical classes had stopped buying items. Which had piloted the decrease in
the number of stuff being produced while lessening the workforce for it all.
Next was the American economic policy with Europe, since businesses had started
to nose-dive during this period the government had crafted the “Smoot-Hawley
Tariff”. (Cland.k12.ky.us, 2017)

This was used to help product companies in
America, while forcing a higher tax import on foreign countries that traded
with America. Causing an economic strain with other countries and America. When
it comes to the drought conditions even though this is not a direct correlation
to the great depression, “the drought that occurred in the Mississippi Valley
in 1930 was of such proportions that many could not even pay their taxes or
other debts and had to sell their farms for no profit to themselves. The area
was nicknamed “The Dust Bowl.” This was the topic of John Steinbeck’s
The Grapes of Wrath.” (Cland.k12.ky.us, 2017) The great depression
peaked at 1933, by this time almost half of the banks in America had failed,
and about 15 million people had lost their jobs. All-in-all the Great
Depression is one of the most horrifying things that our country has dealt with
and it is honestly amazing that we was able to combat this terror and walk into
the age that we are in now. An sure I have lived through the recession that
began in 2007, and many people that I know had lost their jobs and their
livelihood just because of the fact that the banks were just giving money to
anyone that asked for it so they could by big and fancy houses and cars that
they couldn’t afford at all. Subsequently this force the economy to the decrease
and the unemployment rate had increased. After all this was happening these
same banks that forced people to lose their jobs had asked the government to
bail them out just so they could function properly.  But I feel without the experience of the
stock market crash of 1929 and the great depression we as a Americans wouldn’t
know how to react and to prepare for an economic failure such as that like how
we was able to handle the great recession that had happened about 10 years ago.