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Packers and Movers in Ghaziabad

Introduction :
Shifting homes is one of the tedious but an important task because it involves shipment of the goods. Everyone aspires or wants the following things while shifting :

Least transportation time.
Easy and fast loading /unloading.
Low cost.
No damage while shipment.
Proper settlement or adjustments in the new house.

Well to acquire all these, one needs to chose a perfect packer and mover service -provider. And you have visited the right place to learn about how to chose the same. 

So, lets start one by one.

Points to keep in mind while shifting in Ghaziabad :
There are many national as well international packers and movers which provide their services in Ghaziabad. Hence you have many options to chose from.

Before confirming to any company, make sure that how much time do they take in shifting and if they are ready to provide the service in the desired date and time. Although we have provided you with list of the trusted companies only, but since it is never wrong to re-check again, you should do your bit.

Unsettled houses are tough to live in and hence no one wants a the house- hold goods to be simply dumped in the new house. So make sure that you get a arranged and well organized house.

Types of Packing provided in ghaziabad :
Every owner knows the pain of a broken or damaged good, hence it is important to know which type of packing will be suitable. There are many types of packing provided by them :

Fibreboard boxes and cartons : They are cheap and are used for not-so- fragile things. They can withstand mild pressure and jerks. 

Wooden cases : The goods may require protection by way of packing with layers of insulating material, tar paper, sealed plastic covering etc. There are different types of wooden cases, including those made of plywood, which are being increasingly used by exporters.

Wooden crates : These are suitable for wooden packages built like a skeleton. The open crate can be used when the contents are sufficiently resilient to require a minimal form of packing to facilitate handling and stowage. Sometimes, it is used as an outer package to consolidate fibreboard boxes or give cartons extra protection.

Lift vans : When household goods such as tables, chairs, cupboards, glassware, brassware, etc., have to be moved, especially from one country to another, they have to be packed in “lift vans” which are unit loads specially built for the purpose. They are generally made of wood, lined with waterproof material on all sides and additional metallic proofing on the roof to prevent damage by rain and sun.

There are many more, and must be chosen according to the type of the commodity.

Working Procedure in Ghaziabad:

Reaching  : We will provide you with the contact details of your requested team.
Fixing the day for Survey :  Packers and movers will visit your house as per your availability. They will see your goods and give you final quotation. 
Confirmation of booking – Once confirmation of booking is done, quotation is issued followed by quotation finalization and final confirmation.

Packing – The Packing Supervisor gets in touch with you, and will drop at your place timely for the infallible packing treatment.

Transportation – After getting a green signal and conclusions of the requisite payments, the transportation team gets into action instantaneously.

Tracking and Help-desk – The driver or the guard of the concerned vehicle remains in constant touch with your “shifting assistant” and coordinates the same.

On delivery Goods will be unloaded and labourers will make sure it reach its final destination.

Cost and comparing from different moving companies in Ghaziabad :

Cost is one of the most important factor. One should always have a rough idea about the rates these companies charge. Although we will give you the exact quotations but here is a rough price chart :

          1 BHK 2BHK 3BHK   Bike       Car
Within City   ?500 ?7000   ?10000 0         0
100 KM apart ?8000 ?10000 ?13000   ?5700 ?8000
300 KM apart ?12500 ?14500 ?17500 ?10500 ?14500
500 KM apart ?15000 ?17000 ?20000 ?13500 ?19200

Types of shifting in Ghaziabad : There are many types of shifting services provided by moving companies in Ghaziabad.

Relocation of household / office goods


Relocation of vehicle(s)


Few of them, like TransWorld, MoveMyHome, Agarwal, etc. also provide the different types of services :

Conclusion :
Hence we see that Ghaziabad is well equipped with all kinds of packing and moving facilities and services. And so the competition is tough here, and so they try to provide you with the best services in order to outshine in their region. So to chose the best among them according to your needs, all the points mentioned above should be kept in mind. 

FAQ about packers and movers in Ghaziabad :
Question 1 : Does quotation price include Toll booth charges?

Answer: In most cases it does. However in certain cases packers and movers companies will tell you about it

Question 2 : Can I use my own labours for the loading and unloading of goods?

Answer : Yes you can. But please inform the moving company in advance

Question 3 : What is Octroi? Do I need to pay it for everystate?

Answer : Octroi is special type of transportation tax. It need to be paid only for cetain states like Maharashtra

Question 4 : Do I need to pay some amount in advance?

Answer : Yes. Most packers and movers in Gurgaon prefer to take certain amount in advance

Question 5 : Can I track my goods and check records, receipts and bills from anywhere?

Answr : Yes, You can do that by using your order id and phone number. You can track your good live on map

Question 6 : Is insurance of goods compulsary?

Answer : No, Insurance is not compulsary. Its totally upto you, if you want to go for the insurance. We recommend you to get your goods insured if it is too valuable or fragile

Question 7 : Do I need to pay more if I can’t accept delivery on arranged date

Answer : Yes. Normally packers and movers in Gurgaon charge some amount for keeping your goods in warehouse.


Los manipulación y exigían la verdad. Mariano Rajoy,

gobiernos popular y socialista cometieron múltiples errores entre los años 1996
y 2011.  Pero sin duda, los errores más
destacados y que tuvieron mayor trascendencia política fueron los cometidos por
el Partido Popular, poco antes de las elecciones generales de 2004, durante la
gestión de los atentados del 11-M en Madrid.


11 de marzo de 2004 a las 7:37 horas, una bomba explotó en un tren de cercanías
en la estación de Atocha en Madrid. Apenas un minuto después se produjeron
otras dos explosiones en el mismo tren. En menos de tres minutos 10 bombas marcaron
la  historia toda una ciudad. Convirtiéndose
en la mayor matanza terrorista cometida en
con 191 muertos y más de 1 500 heridos.



las miradas apuntaban hacia ETA. ¿Quién si no? El presidente del gobierno, José
María Aznar, en persona, llamó al diario EL PAÍS para notificarles que ETA
estaba detrás del atentado. EL PAÍS publico inmediatamente una edición especial
con la versión del presidente en la portada: “Matanza de ETA en
Madrid”, a pesar de tener datos que apuntaban hacia el terrorismo
islámico. Aznar sabía perfectamente que si se pronunciaba sobre la implicación
de terrorismo islámico en el atentado, el PP pagaría un coste importante en las
elecciones por su decisión de haberse involucrado en la guerra en Irak. Por eso
llevó a cabo una campaña de desinformación sin precedentes.


12 de Marzo, la policía inspeccionó una furgoneta y una bomba que no había
estallado en uno de los vagones. En la furgoneta, se encontró una bolsa con un
tipo de detonadores que jamás había sido utilizado por ETA, un trozo de
cartucho con dinamita que no correspondía con el usado por ETA  y una cinta con versos del Corán. Además, las
matriculas de la furgoneta no habían sido dobladas como siempre hacia ETA. La
bomba demostró que los detonadores eran los mismos que los de la furgoneta y
también encontraron un móvil configurado en árabe. Ya se podía confirmar con
certeza la autoría islámica. Aun así, el ministro Acebes informó a los medios
de comunicación que en la furgoneta se habían encontrado pruebas que apuntaban
a ETA.  ETA desmintió directamente su
participación en el atentado.


sábado 14, apenas 12 h antes que los colegios electorales abriesen sus puertas,
miles de personas acudieron a las sedes del PP y en varias ciudades del país. Culpaban
al gobierno de manipulación y  exigían la
verdad. Mariano Rajoy, el candidato del PP en las elecciones, declaró que se
estaba produciendo una manifestación ilegal e ilegítima imputando graves
delitos al Partido Popular. En ese momento una infinidad de votantes indecisos
se decidieron en su contra.


misma tarde, Al Qaeda se atribuyó los atentados en un video que fue depositado
cerca de la mezquita de Madrid. Aunque el hecho de que Al Qaeda hubiese reconocido
su autoría sólo fue confirmado por el ministerio del Interior horas antes del
inicio de las elecciones.


consecuencia de estos errores mayores e intentos de manipulación, el Partido
Popular perdió las elecciones del 15  de
marzo de 2004 que fueron ganadas por el PSOE por mayoría absoluta.



The can invent a brighter future that will

The students of senior high school system will be studying
the SHS subjects that will begin to show them to their chosen job path someday.
The graduates of this system are prepared to enter the employment field. And
because of this curriculum, the SHS students can concentrate in the field they
are good at and want to enhance more of their skills that will facilitate their
role in globalization. What is Globalization?

Globalization refers to the predisposition of
international trade, barter, investments, IT that will increase the level of
interconnectedness among the people of the world, their lives, work, and
families. This will help the economies and societies of every country to expand
and broaden. In this essay we will be tackling about the role of the SHS
students to globalization in the field of employment, development, and social

In employment, SHS students are expected to be more
prepared in entering the labor force. And because of the K-12 education system
the students will become more competitive among other countries. Even before,
Filipinos are known as competitive in the international community.

These past few years, the consequences of
globalization for employment shows that unemployment levels have been higher
and employment construction have been slower. And it is because of the
macroeconomic policies that hassle the openness in trade, investment and
finance. Macroeconomic policy does not focus on developing employment
construction and supporting economic growth that’s why the level of
unemployment increases.

However, if the companies will have SHS graduates
they will now have efficient workers that will help their company grow. SHS
graduates are recognized as professionals if they work abroad because of the
international education standard that K-12 implemented. And because of that,
SHS graduates who aspire to work abroad will not have a hard time getting jobs
in their chosen field. And with that they can help their families build small
business and property purchase.


in school me thought about the things they have to know in order for them to
survive. In school, students face a lot of challenges but because of those
challenges they are able to experience life and provide a solution for their
own problem.

 According to fleet & Winthop (2010) a
youth would have to be globally competent in order for us to be globally competitive.
Global competency skills are compulsory so that youths can invent a brighter
future that will suitably address global challenges because educating youths
will help them to learn about the interdependence of the worlds system.

Being in school is
a big opportunity for us to know lot of things that the teacher thought us
helps us believed that solutions to global challenges are achievable and it will
broaden our mind to take responsible
action on the challenges that we are facing and that is the role of the senior
high school student’s globalization in the field of development.

In social consciousness, it is important that
students should be aware of what are the happenings here in our society. In
order for us to explore new ideas and experience new we have to communicate
with other people. Just like understanding other cultures, in that way you will
able to see options that would not have occurred to us before.

role of SHS students to globalization in the field of social consciousness is for
us to be able to prepare in the coming days. Because of the technologies the
students are aware of what are the happenings in the world. In that way they
can able to produce new ideas, actions, solutions that will be a help in

1.0 Campaign that was launched in 1997 marked

1.0 Introduction

Health policy is generally assumed to be a concern for healthcare professionals but healthcare is a fundamental aspect of national and local policies. It is evident that solutions for the obesity epidemic in most countries are found through changes in policies related to food, recreation, transport, and retailing but not in policies related to health. The interrelation between health and planning in non-contagious disease is multi-variate and includes social, environmental, and economic aspects of town planning. Over the last twenty years, the World Health Organization (WHO)’s Center for Urban Health, Healthy Cities, and Urban Governance Programme has been exploring the relationship between health and city planning in order to assist the planners design a safer and healthier city.

2.0 Planning of Cities: A Determinant of Health

The environment has long been accepted as a key determinant of health and the place also has an effect on health (Macintyre et al., 2002), which is an important requisite for both conceptualization and policy development (Lalonde, 1974; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999). The WHO has developed the Healthy City Approach through which Health for All and Local Agenda 21 principles and objectives for sustainable development could be accomplished in the urban conditions. The Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) approach enhances the physical, mental, environmental, and social well-being of people living and working in cities, through improvements in urban planning. The principles of HUP can help develop a healthy economy, environment, and society. HUP also contemplates the WHO’s definition of health: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not simply the absence of illness and disease”. As health is a primary essence of sustainable development, HUP places health considerations at the centre of regeneration, economic, and urban developmental efforts. The HUP approach is akin to planning for sustainable development as it does consider the importance of finding a balance between social, economic, and environmental pressures. The HUP aims to improve the quality of both built and natural environment in addition to the quality of life of people residing in cities. Urban planning specifically helps provide the infrastructure as well as a design that facilitate optimum health, which is accomplished through redesigning of older towns and application of principles of HUP to new developments.

The WHO European Healthy Cities Network in the European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign that was launched in 1997 marked the commencement of the HUP initiative as an act to incorporate the agendas for health and sustainable development. The collaboration between urban planners, healthy cities practitioners, and academic advisers led to the publication of Healthy Urban Planning – a WHO guide to planning for people that puts forth twelve health objectives for planners, which were expressed as questions including—Do planning policies and proposals promote and encourage factors such as healthy exercise, housing quality, social cohesion, access to employment opportunities, accessibility to social and market facilities, community and road safety, equity and the reduction of poverty, local low-impact food production and distribution, good air quality and protection from excessive noise, good water and sanitation quality, conservation and decontamination of land, and climate stability.

As a next step, a City Action Group on HUP was established to connect urban planners and health practitioners from various WHO Healthy Cities to work out practical modes for implementation of the advocated principles. The two key areas focused were the incorporation of health principles and objectives into strategic policies/documents and development of specific projects that incorporate principles of HUP such as intersectoral action and community participation. HUP also became a central theme in Phase IV of the WHO Healthy Cities Network in Europe (2003-2008). The objective was to include health considerations into city urban planning processes and to establish the essential capacity as well as a political and institutional commitment to achieving this.

There is evidence that shows the profound effect of urban planning on the risks and challenges to the health of the population (Grant & Braubach, 2010). Throughout the world, the impact of the built environment on health is well evidenced and widely accepted (Galea & Vlahov, 2005; Rydin et al., 2012). In spite of this, outside communicable diseases and interventions including proper sanitation and access to water, and examination of interventions that make an effort to influence public health through urban planning and design are hard to be found.

Across Europe, expansion of the peripheral city areas shows a pattern of low density, use of segregated car-based development dependent on high levels of use of fossil fuel. This urban planning not only uses land dissolutely but decreases the viability of local services, and also renders walking impractical due to long distances and discourages cycling because of the ease of motorized transport. The reduction in regular exercises such as walking and cycling can result in increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. People who remain tied to their locality, for instance, elderly people, children, unemployed people, young parents, and handicapped immobile people are vulnerable. The absence of local facilities decreases pedestrian movement and also limits opportunities for the social contact that plays an important role in mental well-being.

3.0 Levels of Health Integration in Urban Planning

The three distinct levels of integration of health and planning provide a simple classification of HUP development. The first level is basic and it encompasses recognition of the essential life support role of settlements that includes the provision of shelter, access to food and clean drinking water, fresh air, and effective sewage treatment. In Western Europe, this primary level of planning is taken for granted and is almost subliminal. Elsewhere, this is not always the case. Sprawling, high-density towns often lack basic services.

The second level encompasses environmental health and the recognition of many facets of settlement planning and design that affect health and well-being—a park in densely populated cities enhances physical activity, contact with nature and fresh air, and also adds an aesthetic delight.

The third level involves the complete integration of health into the planning process. It is not only a matter of units of public health working in collaboration with planners but also involves the contribution of housing officials, greenspace managers, and regeneration and transport planners. If the long-term health of a population is thought to be a fundamental aspect of urban planning, then the methods of pursuing economic objectives without adopting unhealthy settlement form have to be found (Barton, 2009).

4.0 Healthy Urban Planning in Glasgow

The initial efforts of HUP in Glasgow were towards the health integration into strategic planning documents and as a result, the 2005 Glasgow & Clyde Valley (GCV) Structure Plan Alteration was put forth, which recognizes the importance of urban planning in the delivery of the health agenda in Scotland. There is a close-knit relation between a majority of areas with greatest health deprivation and the established planning policies made to improve employment, regeneration, and environment, which are also the key determinants of the health, well-being, and quality of life of a population. The 2005 GCV Structure Plan Alteration did identify some communities which had the greatest need as well as potential to create a healthier environment through recognizing the actions required in order to improve the physical and housing conditions in these areas.

The GCV Joint Committee in association with the local Health Boards developed a Common Health Action Programme which does complement both the Structure Plan as well as health policy documents through demonstration of the consistency of sustainable land use planning and health policy and by the provision of a general context for continuous collaboration and supervision of progress. It plans to achieve this through the establishment of an Integrated Programme and Key Actions to address challenges in the each of the areas such as sustainability, economic regeneration, social inclusion, and the environment.

Glasgow City Plan 2 does provide a detailed guidance regarding the shape, form, and direction of development in the City. For the first time ever, health and health improvements have appeared in the Plan and it is integrated all throughout the document and identifies where exactly planning can have an influence on the health and well-being of people. For instance, it includes links to housing, transport, green space, and access to jobs and services. The Strategic Environmental Assessment for this Plan also considers the implications of the City Plan on the health.

Further, sponsorship of training on Health Impact Assessment (HIA) as a tool for integration of health into spatial planning was done. As a result, HIA was commenced on the East End Local Development Strategy (EELDS), which was in a very initial draft stage. A 2-day participatory stakeholder event was held that included representatives from the health, planning, community planning, Scottish Enterprise, housing, and the local community members. Stakeholders were given the following

1.      Baseline information regarding the health of residents in the local community

2.      A list of social determinants of health relevant to the EELDS

3.      Examples demonstrating how health was considered in other regeneration projects,

4.      A presentation to educate participants about the EELDS and

5.      A site visit to the location of concern. There were evidence-based suggestions in the report and more than hundred of these suggestions were adopted into the forthcoming drafts of the EELDS.

The HIA was effective in influencing the document and the process of conducting the HIA was as important in supporting a common language for communication. The HIA also has led to the adoption of further innovative techniques regarding community engagement within the planning system. As a result of the great success of the HIA of the EELDS, Glasgow City Council (GCC) has adopted HIA as an effective tool for integration of health into its strategies, proposals, plans, and projects, most of which are traditionally non-health related. HIA has also been employed to explore the lunchtime experience of secondary school students. Another development from the HIA of the EELDS is the concept of integrated infrastructure. Growth was hindered by outdated sewerage systems combined with surface runoff systems. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) should be in place in order to ensure that surface runoff does not penetrate the sewers. Traditional SUDS have taken the form of collecting ponds that are surrounded by a fence, but integrated infrastructure brings in a canal network that is integrated with a green network and an active network. Thus, SUDS not only serve the purpose of handling with the runoff, but also help connect the green space and provide an opportunity for people residing in the city to include physical activity in a pleasant environment along with their daily routines.

According to the global report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Closing the Gap in a Generation, there should be refreshed debate at national and city levels and has placed equity in health on top of the agenda at a European level. This is a predominating value of the health strategy in the European Union, although it is less evident with regards to EU economic policies. During the international conference that marked the end of phase IV of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network in 2008, the city mayors did sign a declaration that reaffirms a commitment to equity which has been considered as a golden thread throughout all the phases of the project since its commencement in the year, 1987. They also gladly accepted their local leadership role in promoting “Health and Health Equity in All Local Policies”.

In reality, there has been obligating evidence, which shows that health inequalities are still not reducing. The WHO/HABITAT report Hidden Cities (WHO/UN-HABITAT, 2010) has exposed great inequalities in urban settings across almost every continent. Mackenbach does highlight one of the great disappointments of public health because of the persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health even throughout the highly developed welfare states of Western Europe (Mackenbach et al., 2008; Mackenbach, 2012). Within the WHO-EHCN, there is evidence from the author’s evaluations of both phases III and IV that demonstrate improvements in monitoring health inequalities and a better understanding of the requirement to tackle the socioeconomic determinants (Ritsatakis, 2009). It is understood that political commitment is not always translated into processes that will improve health outcomes and reduce health inequalities over time.

Being aware of these locally generated evidence on barriers and vital success factors, the WHO Regional Office for Europe took a pledge at the 2009 Annual Business and Technical Meeting held at Rennes, France, to support their network cities with more rigorous and determined efforts in order to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. The initial drafts of the new guidelines were presented at the 2010 Annual Business and Technical Meeting held in Sandnes, Norway. The feedback from various cities was incorporated into a revised framework that was presented at the 2011 Annual Business and Technical Meeting held in Liege, Belgium. The final framework required for action—Healthy cities tackle the social determinants of inequities in health were presented and discussed at the 2012 (World Health Organization, 2012b). Annual Business and Technical Meeting held at St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. It is also complemented by a WHO report that briefs on the role of local government in addressing the social determinants of health (World Health Organization, 2012a).

This guidance related to city-based interventions helps tackle the whole gradient health inequalities and draws attention to international evidence and especially the phase IV evaluation. To summarize, the action points include

1.      Enhancement of local governance and processes for both the place and people,

2.      Increase the institutional capacity in order to deliver change,

3.      Improve the knowledge base to measure and monitor progress,

4.      Health equity should be incorporated in all local policies,

5.      Interventions that can sensitize the mainstream city services, and

6.      Specially targeted programs. During the phase V (2009–2013), a subnetwork of 25 cities was committed to advance these action points in a systematic and comprehensive method, sharing and developing best practice for decision-makers in Europe and beyond.

5.0 Conclusion

This evaluation concludes that the understanding of the significance of urban health planning through the Healthy Cities movement has developed significantly over the period of phase IV, but still has a long way to go. It is to be noted that the Healthy Cities program can be efficacious in the promotion of the vital importance of linking health and planning as well as in dissemination and development of good practice. In most urban places, it has helped in the transformation of the political and professional agenda, integration of health within sustainable development and the planning of the human environment. However, there are several cities that are still struggling with the more strategic and holistic level of approach. The two common reasons seem to be that they could be hampered by internal institutional barriers and an evolving spatial form which is driven by the fact ‘what the market can deliver’. This type of barriers act against any kind of integrated working and it is not just HUP that will be disfavored. Every city can suffer from this to an extent, as a large complex organization and it can be realized that the successful cities are those that engage with a broad range of stakeholders and form a wide-ranging partnership by providing a continuous bulwark opposed to sectoral silos.

The Level 3 brought in a heavy responsibility with many current policy assumptions that was widespread across Europe such as business parks and retail parks that will need careful and honest review. The integration of health and planning, therefore, needs a basic change in its organizational structure in most cities. This kind of transformation can be done through a programme that can promote knowledge exchange and a reflective discourse on the values between public health professionals and planners (Pilkington et al., 2008). It is understood that in democratic communities, it all depends on the strong unanimity amongst the population. In addition, it does require an effective top leadership that is willing to rethink the established policy. A strong commitment to a Health in all Policies approach would be able to concentrate minds.

6.0 Recommendations

There is certainly an opportunity for the health commission to support the HUP approach and help mainstream HUP throughout Glasgow. Though most Glasgow planners do understand the links between planning and health, this is not universal and the lacking understanding may create barriers. The health commission may encourage their partners to embrace the principles of HUP and conduct seminars and disseminate papers in order to ensure that there is a better understanding throughout Glasgow of the way this can lead to a more healthier and sustainable city. Although the Commonwealth Games did have the potential to act as a catalyst and help address most of the determinants of health, learnings from the previous international sporting events do indicate that these events are not sufficient to ensure improved health. In order to help in developing a legacy of health improvement, an HIA of the Games needs to be conducted. It is also recommended that the health commission needs to encourage partners to take on board suggestions from the HIA to develop and accommodate plans in light of these suggestions. The health commission should consider the ways it could help to ensure that health criteria are built into the planning of development briefs and assessment processes. The health commission needs to consider how it can encourage the meaningful use of HIA for future policies, plans, and developments in Glasgow, including both large public sector developments and private developments. It needs to enable the meaningful involvement of communities in decision making about their local areas. As we know, the green spaces and other public spaces contribute towards the vibrancy of local neighborhoods, they provide an opportunity for social interaction, especially when created and maintained in ways that meet the community needs. It is recommended that the health commission should consider how planning can be employed to protect public spaces and also to develop new ones. It should involve local community members in the development of their own city. Lastly, it is also recommended that the health commission supports the city’s continued involvement in the national as well as international networks with a purpose of sharing their learning and experience, good practices and to develop collaborative work. 

Type width) are the commonly accepted factors accepted

Type of manuscript: research article 
Running title: 

Undergraduate student
Saveetha dental college, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.
Dr.yuvraj babu.K
department of Anatomy,
Saveetha Dental college, Saveetha university, chennai, India.
Corresponding author 
Dr.yuvraj babu.K
Department of Anatomy,
Saveetha Dental college, 
Saveetha University,
162, Poonamallee High Road,
Chennai 600077
Tamil Nadu, India 
Email: [email protected]
Telephone number: 9841056964
Total number of words:

    To check if nasal index is a parameter for estimating gender difference 
         South Indian people of various age groups were chosen and the nasal index of males and females were calculated. The width of the nose  and the nasal height was calculated using a vernier caliper. The nasal index of both males and females was then done to conclude if nasal index can be used as a parameter to estimate gender difference.. A cross sectional study of the nasal parameters were thus taken to estimate and thereby compare the nasal index.

using the nasal parameters such as nasal width, nasal length and the nasal indices, the comparison between the nasal indices of the males and the females of South India was done and recorded. for females ,the mean nasal index was 84.71. And for males, the mean nasal index was 91.61. The p value is 0.002909 and the t-value is 2.83591. The result is significant at p<0.05.this shows that nasal index can be used a reliable parameter in estimating the gender difference CONCLUSION: The study concludes with the nasal index of the South Indian males slightly higher than that of the females which proves that nasal index is a useful parameter to estimate gender difference. KEY WORDS:          Nasal index, parameter, gender difference. INTRODUCTION:     Nose, is one of the most important  structure in the face that has both bones and cartilages and performs major functions. Hence, the study of nasal index and its comparison forms the basis of racial and ethnic difference in nasal index among different population. It forms the base of the facial anthropometric study, genetic counselling and forensic investigation as well. Nasal analysis is the most important procedure that a clinical surgeon will take up before taking up the rhinoplasty surgery (for the correction of size and shape of nose). Hence, the nasal parameters such as nasal index, nasal height and nasal width) are the commonly accepted factors accepted in the field of anthropology. The most important aspect of nasal index in anthropological studies is that it is based on both bony and cartilaginous landmarks. It is also unique and significant when compared to other parameters. The findings such as finding the gender difference using the nasal index has its own importance in the field of forensic science, clinical uses, and anthropological studies as well.The shape and size of the nose might vary from individual to individual depending on the environmental circumstances, race from which they belong and even due to their habitats adaptive changes might occur in different individuals . thus we can say that nasal size and shape is influenced by adaptation to the environment.  Nasal index is a regional and racial sensitive anthropometric index. It is also one of the an anthropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of an individual in the world. Nasal index is calculated by the formula : nasal width/ nasal height multiplied by 100. These kind of novel studies about the nasal parameters will help for the purpose of clinical practice (plastic surgery), forensic medicine as well as for the anthropological study.Nasal index proves as a useful tool for neurosurgeon, plastic surgeon, andanthropologists. Facial anthropometry is an important tool utilized and forms a part of genetic counselling,reconstructive surgery and forensic examination .  The nose varies in its shape and size and gets modified during childhood, adolescence and at the later stages of life.the variation when observed microscopically, is found to have modifications in the soft tissues, elasticity of the skin, cartilage size changes, and resilience effects. Hence our aim is to compare the nasal index of both males and females and hence find out if it can be a parameter for estimating the gender difference among the South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: South Indian people of various age groups were chosen and the nasal index of males and females were calculated. The width of the nose  and the nasal height was calculated using a vernier caliper. The nasal index of both males and females was then done to conclude if nasal index can be used as a parameter to estimate gender difference. The calculated data was then tabulated and the p-value And t-value was found and the result was recorded.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION : From the study, it is found that the nasal index is a reliable parameter for the estimation of gender difference .  Anthropometric parameters of the nose vary with age, sex, ethnic background and their habitats. Knowledge of these is essential for surgeons who take up aesthetic repair. Articles from other authors state that even after the skeletal formation of nose during birth, the nose continues to develop and minor or major changes in its size and shape might occur. PARAMETERS MALES FEMALES Range Mean Range Mean 1. Nasal height 2.5-3.2 4.1 2.5-3.1 4.05 2. Nasal width 2.1-3.0 3.6 1.9-2.7 3.25 3. Nasal index 74.19-115.38 132.48 70-104 122 From the above data, we can understand that the mean values of nasal height in males is slightly greater than the nasal height in females. In the same way, we can also claim that the nasal width is greater in males than in females. Hence, after the calculations, the average value of nasal indices of males is greater than the females. Through this data we are able to compare the nasal indices of males and females and conclude that gender difference can be found out through the calculation of nasal index and hence nasal index is a useful parameter for estimating the gender difference.  Based on the basal region of the nose, 3 types of nose are present 1.leptorrhine type( long and narrow)- nasal index below 70 2. Mesorrhine type (medium)- nasal index from 70-85 3.platyrrhine type (broad and flat)- nasal index above 85 Based on these, the nasal indices can be further compared.  TYPE OF NOSE MALES FEMALES Leptorrhine type 0 1 Mesorrhine type 13 20 Platyrrhine type 27 19 From the above table, we can say that the leptorrhine type ; that is, the long and narrow type of nose is mostly absent among the South Indian population. No male from  the participants of the research had the leptorrhine type of nose and only one female was found to have this type of the nose.  One more important result that we get is the mesorrhine type of nose is the most common in South Indian females and platyrrhine type of nose is the most common type in males. But, a significant amount of female population is also found to have platyrrhine type of nose and in the same way, quite a large number of males have also found to have mesorrhine type of nose.  From the study conducted above, we can say that most of the South Indians have nose of medium length and broad and flat types most commonly. Further, for females the mean nasal index was 84.71 And for males, the mean nasal index was 91.61 The p value is 0.002909 and the t-value is 2.83591. The result is significant at p<0.05.this shows that nasal index can be used a reliable parameter in estimating the gender difference. Various studies by authors have proved the racial as well as gender differences in nasal index among different populations.(16-18). Our result is in agreement with that of the study of Franciscus.R.G and Long.J.C which claimed that the nasal height and width was higher in south Nigerian males than females (19).  Staka et al. , in an article published in 2012, stated that male population have a significantly higher nasal index than females (20), which confirms the existence of nasal index is one of the most important in nasal parameters among the Kosovo Albanian population. This is also in accordance with our study where the nasal index of South Indian males is significantly higher than that of the South Indian females. CONCLUSION:         We can conclude this study by saying that the nasal index is a useful parameter in finding the gender difference among different population as the nasal index value is significantly higher in males than in females

A happy for all the moments I share

A young boy with a
broad smile stares at me. His eyes are unclouded with cynicism or bitterness.
He is a disadvantaged child from rural South Africa. Yet his gaze is trusting,
pure. He is undoubtedly happy. In fact, he has fashioned the most absurd huge
blue toy glasses from recycled wire. Vibrant blues and reds contrasting with
one other in order to stand out more brightly. The enormous baby-blue glasses
catch my attention. They scream laughter and fun. This is a face that fills my
heart with love; this is a face that imprints itself indelibly on my soul. These
contagious laughs, these beaming eyes, this undiluted joy remind me of what it
feels like to be gleeful, to be free and still unaware of life’s trials and tragedies.
They are tangible. These buoyant colours splash and radiate across the frame
creating a never-ending loop of joyful emotions in me.

This Nelson Makamo painting of a young boy
represents the stress-free life of a child and the joy that they can locate in occurrences
in their lives that older people take for granted or do not recognise. When I
look at this picture, I feel the happy energy of the young child invigorate me.
The stress leaves my body.

Innocence and joy are undefinable.


I ponder these
characteristics when I study this painting. Contemporary society places much
pressure on us, the youth. I feel this pressure intensely. Sometimes I forget
that I am only a teenager; I am supposed to have fun and to be actively present
in every moment. But, I am hurdled into a pool, trying to keep my head above my
work and responsibilities. However, this visual reminds me of what youth is
supposed to be like. The visual pulls me out of my stress-bubble and reminds me
that I am allowed to have fun. That I must have fun. When I look at this
wrinkleless face, I embrace my youth. For a few seconds, I shed my responsibilities.
I consider all the small seemingly trivial joys in my life about which I have
become complacent: my mother’s warm hugs; my dad’s play fights; my dogs’
affectionate greetings; and chats with my sisters. I find myself grateful and
happy for all the moments I share with my family.


I reflect on my
happy experiences the most when I feel hopeless. In dreadful moments my mind
removes itself from the present chaos and soars into memories of fun and
laughter. Hysterical screams, my dog’s mouth foaming as he had an epileptic
fit, may sound like a nightmare; however, this was the reality that I walked
into only a few days ago. In this dreadful moment, I found myself clinging onto
the happy times that I had shared with him, my best friend. My dog, Max the
schnauzer, makes me truly happy. After this incident, upon reflection, I
understood that I was sometimes ungrateful for the small moments that occur in
my life. Max’s enthusiastic welcomes, his need to play catch with me, and his
demands that the entire Jossel family love him, are all invaluable examples of
how much fulfillment I derive from Max. I was suddenly thankful for all these
moments and found the pure joy hidden in them. This specific experience
incorporates all the lessons that I have learnt from Nelson Makamo’s painting.


The philosophy of
Nelson Makamo is therefore strongly shaped by the concept of happiness. He can
identify the beauty in the simplest moments of life.  He explains that “My work is
inspired by my existence, by the fact that I can wake up every day and see the
movement around me.” His artwork floods my mind with happy memories from my
childhood, thereby guiding me towards the beauty in existence. Many pieces of
his work are inspired by the candid innocence of children. Deprived children
from rural South Africa are his preferred subject matter and thus opitomises
the harmony for which we all strive, and so we are reminded of the optimistic
joy that occurs within us His work distracts us from our obsession with worldly
things, instead reminding us of what it feels like to be an appreciative child.
A rural child plays with sticks whilst a privileged child walks over them; a
rural child uses his imagination and creativity to invent toy cars and figure-men
whilst a privileged child merely buys a plastic toy; a rural child kicks a
bottle around whereas a privileged child throws it away. The innovative mind of
the rural child proves that the ‘necessity is the mother of invention’. These
impoverished children crave toys, so they are obliged to use their creativity
to invent their own. Although these children may not be living with the
stereotypical family of mother, father and two children; although they do not
get good education as they go to under-resourced schools; although they probably
only see their parents once a year, they seem to be able to put their terrible
circumstances aside and to enjoy life by finding a thrill in what is available
to them. Waste products that can be recycled. The young lad in my visual reflects
such optimistic attitudes.


The big blue circles function as a powerful metaphor for Nelson
Makamo’s world view. Blue is the colour of happiness, and here it portrays that
the joy this rural child has found, despite all his troubles. The circles represent
glasses, indicating the way in which this child sees his world and the way that
such children choose to be happy. The metaphor teaches us that we must learn to
ignore the complexities and obstacles in life, and rather to rediscover the
simple joys of childhood. The metaphor also represents the toy that was
invented by the child. This child is beaming with satisfaction for having been
so experimental; however, from a middle-class point of view this child is
vulnerable. Therefore, these big blue circles argue that Nelson Makamo is not
bitter about the plight of rural children. He is not making a stringent
political comment. Rather, he is celebrating the optimism and unquenchable hope
of these children; I now realize more fully that I lead a privileged life. Although,
I have lots of pressure from school, I am nevertheless benefiting from a
remarkably good education. Although I may fight with my family I still have
them nearby,  and although my parents may
irritate me, I can hug them goodnight. Therefore, for me to be more cheerful
and optimistic is a very deep lesson that the visual teaches me.

 art I learn to embrace my inner child, I
learn never to take the simplicity of life for granted. I hope that such lessons
will remain with me throughout my life and act as a constant reminder to live
life, to enjoy moments and to be at peace with life. When I think carefully
about the little boy I understand that the ‘haves’ we should remember the more
grateful attitudes of the ‘have nots’. I should try to cut and paste this
happiness and contentment into my life so that I can better appreciate my life.




Olivia and is treated very poorly do to

Olivia RoseMs. BallENG 4U1Tuesday January 23, 2018Prejudice and its Place in ‘Middlesex’ and ‘Stones from the River’Prejudice and misconceptions; commonly known issues in the history of the world. Defined as being a preconceived thought or idea not based upon any logic or experiences, prejudice occurs almost every day. When meeting a new person, one will form a judgement whether they know the person or not, instantly deciding if they like the person they have met. In school, students are taught about the history of the world, settlers travelling from their homelands to discover new places, meeting the inhabitants of the lands they found; but also of the judgements made against the people there, based on their living conditions, appearances, and language barriers. These judgements, evident from early history through to today, clearly show that prejudice is a part of the human nature, and accountable for the harsh treatments of many groups of people. Prejudice is also noted in literary works such as Jeffrey Eugenides’ Middlesex, and Ursula Hegi’s Stones from the River. These two novels explore the thematic topic of prejudice, as well as the struggles of growing up. Both main characters start off as young children, their journey leading the reader through their lives growing up in a world filled with prejudice and the confusion that comes with growing older. Middlesex follows the Stephanides family history, before leading into the life of Calliope/Cal and the consequences of hermaphroditism. The Stephanides are a family of Grecian descent, Eleutherios and Desdemona travelling from their home to America in 1922. The narrative recounts three generations of Stephanides, the first two parts of the novel focusing primarily on times before Calliope. The last two parts focusing on Calliope and the transitioning into Cal. In Stones from the River, the narrative takes place in Burgdorf, Germany, in 1915. Trudi Montag is a Zwerg, or dwarf, who tries for the majority of her youth to come up with solutions to grow. It is Trudi’s belief that the madness her mother possesses is due to Trudi’s disproportionate body, desperately craving her mother’s wellbeing as well as her affection. In the novel, Trudi is disliked by many of the children her age, and is treated very poorly do to her differences. While reading Middlesex and Stones from the River, it is clear to see that prejudice can be a dangerous tool against others, and causes those who are visible minorities to feel isolated; forcing them to take desperate measures to attempt to fit into societal moulds. Misconceptions and prejudice are explored thoroughly through the use of religion, physical and mental states, and external social forces acting upon the characters.One of the factors that contributes to prejudice and its effects on a person is religion. In the novel Middlesex, it is due to race and religion that Desdemona and Eleutherios, commonly known as Lefty, leave their home in Bithynios, fleeing to America for sanctuary. The siblings’ homeland is being attacked, villages burning to the ground and people dying. Lefty is able to get them passage onto a ship that takes them to America to live with their cousin Sourmelina. In the novel, Desdemona remains a devout and faithful figure, despite living with Sourmelina and her husband, who do not practice the traditional faith as she does. Desdemona attends an Orthodox Greek church regularly, and wishes her family to do the same. Despite this, she herself has preconceptions based on what she believes. While on the ship to America, brother and sister marry and consummates their love during the evening of their wedding night. Considered sinful to not only marry her brother, but to have sexual relations with him, Desdemona fears that she and her family will be punished severely.. Desdemona’s prejudgements regarding the strength of the church and the role it plays in her life cause her to feel a constant sense of shame, which only worsens with time. As her son Milton grows, she tries to convince him to fix a statue back in Bithynios of Christ, wanting to make sure that she does all she can to please the lord. After watching a play about the Minotaur, Desdemona finds herself constantly thinking of disfigured babies as a result of species intermingling, thinking that her children will be monsters as well because of her marriage to Lefty. This can be seen as foreshadowing, as Calliope is born a hermaphrodite, which at the time was considered to be rather monstrous. Desdemona allows her fear and prejudgement of the church and God rule, deciding that after the birth of her son, Milton, she was no longer going to have children.”A surgeon made two incisions below her navel. Stretching open the tissue and muscle toexpose the circuitry of the fallopian tubes, he tied each in a bow, and there were no morechildren.” (Eugenides, 165)Here, the reader can see that Desdemona decides to biologically block any chances of her becoming pregnant again. After seeing her children are not strangely deformed in the same ways the Minotaur from the plays she watches are, she decides she must make sure she cannot conceive any more children, as well as making deals with God to protect her family from the ramifications of her actions. By having her fallopian tubes tied, Desdemona now can follow the church again without worry that she will be caught for her sins. Her two children are healthy and normal, and she hopes to keep it that way. Her anxiety, though, follows her to old-age. Her whole life is spent trying to make deals with God in an attempt to forgive her and her family from their sins.The church is also prevalent in Stones from the River, In addition to prejudice in religion and how it causes a character to feel pressured to make hasty changes to her body in order to feel less isolated by the sin she commits, there is prejudice formed based on the state of the characters of the text. In some way, the characters are perceived to be different, whether that be physically or mentally. In Middlesex, prejudice against physical and/or mental differences is seem primarily against young Calliope Stephanides. Growing up, Calliope was not like most other children, with a face described as being not quite feminine, but something in between. She describes herself and her physical growth over the years, finding she does not mature in the same way as other girls. She never receives her first period, nor does she develop breasts. In this, it is clear growing up she feels isolated by her differences. She tries to fake her menstrual cycle, and fill her shirts with tissue to make it appear as though she is normal. It is not until she begins to develop romanticized feelings for another young girl that she begins to understand how she is different. When she runs away after a sexual encounter with the young girl, whom she refers to as ‘the Obscure Object’, whose brother tries to injure them both. They then find out she is actually a hermaphrodite, and she is taken from her home to a specialist doctor. There she learns about the prejudice against hermaphroditism, looking up her condition in a dictionary. “For a second Callie saw herself that way. As a lumbering, shaggy creature pausing at the edge of the woods…But the synonym pursued her. Webster’s dictionary kept calling after her, Monster, Monster!” (Eugenides, 430-431) This leads her to run away from home, feeling more isolated than ever. Despite the doctor having had encounters with other people similar to Calliope, they still allow for others to make judgements about her, calling Calliope a freak, and subjecting her to tests and exams. She is forced to watch pronography, in order to determine if their judgements about what it is like to be a partially and partially female. If Calliope had not been subjected to these tests, or heard her parents crying due to the doctor’s research, Calliope’s transition to become Cal would have been smoother. Cal ran away and joined a brothel type show that depicted him as the monster he felt he was based on the misconceptions of his family and doctor.Similarly to Cal’s physical differences, Trudi too faced prejudice against her body. Being a Zerg in Germany, Trudi stands much shorter than her parents. Her dwarfism causes her body to look slightly disproportionate. Her head looks too large for her body. During the time of war, she worries that it is her difference that causes her mother to be insane to the point of being locked up in asylums. Trudi has many misconceptions about life and the way it works, making her seem naive and gullible. As a child, Trudi’s mother was supposed to give birth to a little boy, who died prematurely not long after Trudi ate sugar from the windowsill that was supposed to attract a stork. She believes that she is the reason for her brother’s death. Trudi first learns of prejudice against her physical form when she tries to make friends. Due to her dwarfism, many of the children refuse to play with her, so she befriends Georg Weiler. Georg is treated as an outsider as well, because of his mother who had desperately wanted a girl. In light of this, she dresses her son in smocks opposed to lederhosen, and refuses to cut his hair. The boys his age deem him a coward and feminine and force him into isolation. Because of their differences, Trudi and Georg form a bond, Trudi being able to convince others she is worthy of making friends outside of school. In school, the other children taunt Trudi, and act cruelly towards her based on her height..”But when they called her names- Zwerg- dwarf, and Zwergenbein- dwarf leg- names they knew would sting, she’d grab fistfuls of dirt to fling at their taunting faces. She’d fling names at them too- Schweinsau- pig, sow… vile names that made her afraid her soul was becoming as hideous as her body.” (Hegi, 92). Despite trying to make friends, she has to go to one of the teachers in order for the girls to reluctantly include her in their games. Even while playing she feels isolated, and when they try to hurt her feelings with name calling, she uses words she hears adults saying to them back. Names that cause the nuns to scold her for her temper, and warn that she must behave as a young lady should. She tries desperately to make herself taller, hoping this will make her peers forgive and befriend her.Finally, there is the social forces acting on the characters. In history, it is proven that the mindset of a generation is affected greatly by the world around them, and how the world interacts with them. Politics about different topics change greatly around times of war, accounting for rises in hatred and prejudice of other groups. Politics also change with each generation, as new technology is created and used to advance the human race. Old values begin to fade into new ones,

The they get to the station they realize

The novel starts off with the introduction of the character Dr. Susan Calvin who is in an interview with a reporter, which is considered as the narrator. In this interview she offers stories from her 50 years as a robo-psychologist that involve robots and are later used as chapters in the book. These stories use the Three Laws of Robotics that Asiimov created along with his stories. The first law states that a robot cannot bring harm to a human being in any way. The second law states that a robot must obey all orders given to it by human beings except when it conflicts with the first law. The third law states that a robot must protect itself as long as it doesn’t conflict with the first or second laws.”Robbie” This chapter or story talks about a girl named Gloria and a caretaker robot she received as a present from her mom after robots break out as a new trend. After more and more people begin to hate robots, Gloria’s mom, Mrs. Weston, returns Robbie because she feared that Gloria would become anti-social and only interact with robots like Robbie instead of other children. To her dismay, she soon realized that the loss of Robbie made her daughter depressed as Robbie grew to become Gloria’s best friend. To reverse her state of mind, Gloria’s parents bring her to New York City in an attempt to take her mind off the topic. After taking her to all of the attractions New York has to offer, her depression is still yet to be cured. Mr. Weston then comes up with the idea to bring Gloria to a robot factory so she would see that they have no actual feelings and are just machines. At the factory Mr. Weston had a plan to reunite Gloria and Robbie, of course without Mrs. Weston’s approval. After Gloria is saved by Robbie in a fatal accident, Mrs. Weston finally agrees to let Gloria keep Robbie.”Runaround” In this short story two astronauts, Powell and Donovan, and a robot named Speedy go to Mercury to restart a mining facility which had been previously abandoned. Once they get to the station they realize that the photocell banks which provide energy to the facility will run out of selenium soon. After further deliberation, they determine that they can send Speedy to a selenium pool over fifteen miles away because of his heat resistance. After not returning for five hours, the two astronauts grow worried and use a different robot to find out what happened to Speedy. At the selenium pool they find Speedy running in circles as if he was malfunctioning. Powell then realizes that the selenium had a negative effect on him and is causing him to malfunction.

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The argument of whether or not morality and law should be mutually exclusive has been present since the beginning of the exploration of philosophy, from the founding fathers of legal and moral philosophy, but is still relevant to the society today. The Hart-Fuller debate is the perfect illustration that demonstrates two different concepts of thinking such as positive law theory and natural law theory. The debate is divided between two different views of legal opinion. The positivist view of Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (H.L.A. Hart) arguing that law and morality should be separate, and the belief of Lon Luvois Fuller (L.L. Fuller) who is considered to be a natural law theorist who claims for morality as the source of law’s binding power. This debate touched on many different issues but the focus was on Hart’s defence of positivism and the separation of what law “is” and what law “ought to be”.

David Hume was the first philosopher who pointed out the significant split between what law “is” and what law “ought to be”. Hume suggested that all objective human reasoning could be divided into two kinds, knowledge of facts and knowledge of ideas. The crucial point is that Hume’s accords more authority, he argued that the only knowledge that we can be sure of is the knowledge that is based on accurate observation and that we can see and describe. And this leads to one of the most important of his contributions which is what is called the “is,” “ought” divide.

The conflict of “positivism” and “natural law” is not merely of doctrinal concern.Legal theorists can be divided into two schools of thought, those who support positivism and others who follow the natural law theory. Legal positivism is formed on a simple allegation that the conventional definition of law is a worthy objective and it needs to be kept separate from moral judgments. Their theory stands around the belief that the question of what the law “is,” should be separated from, the question of what the law “should be”. Though, we should not adopt the notion that they believe morality is not present in law, what they are saying is that for describing and defining law, moral correctness is not necessarily a crucial part of that definition. 

Early advocates of legal positivism included Jeremy Bentham and John Austin, believed that “the existence of law is one thing; its merit or demerit is another .” The natural law theorists, however, believe that rules or principles can only decently refer to as “law” if they comply with an acceptable code of moral behaviour. Some of the most known Natural Law theorists in history, such as Aristotle, Plato and Lon L. Fuller have expressed the view that “law is only just and legitimate if it promotes the common good.” However, Positivists such as H.L.A Hart and Thomas Hobbes believe in a differing concept, that a law is only legitimate if it has been “established through the proper steps by someone with the total power to do so regardless of the content of that law, containing no essential need for morality.” While each theorist presents his explanation, each attempts to answer these fundamental questions about law and its application inside the society. 

The modern set of approaches to natural law arose as responses to legal positivism. The way legal positivists characterise traditional natural law positions the most recent discussion of “natural law theory” derives from the 1985 Harvard Law review. The two schools engage in a debate about the particular approaches to a case study. The discussion itself is a debate between H.L.A Hart and Lon Fuller that occurs in the late 1950’s in the pages of an American Journal “The Harvard Law Review”. In the debate, Professor H.L.A Hart initiated the basis for the restatement of natural law theory and the conceptual separation of law and morality. The Hart-Fuller debate is concerned with the relationship between law and morality with specific reference to Nazi law and the validity of Nazi law. Hart felt it best to argue the line that whether the rules were unjust or irrational, should not influence their status as law, demonstrating a blatant disregard for moral issues within a legal system and that laws should not be invalidated on moral grounds. The debate brings out a conflict between the two theoretical traditions and is shows consequences to this models and ideas. It is to be noted that the debate itself was ultimately influenced by two events both associated with World War II. 

Both philosophers reflect on the actions of a German theorist, named Gustav Radbruch, who was considered to be a positivist until a certain point where he defected to Natural law after the Nazi regime and its evil manifestation in the legal system. He thought that the Positivist mindset contributed to the failings of the legal profession to stand up against the Nazi law. So he moves on and changes his position as he believed that fundamental principles of humanitarian morality were part of the law. After the Nazi tyranny, Radbruch came to the idea that law and morals are not to be separated, because the validity of the Nazi regime laws could not change by showing that its requirements were morally evil. Radbruch supported the idea that “positivism” contributed to the horrors because it enhanced the risk of making harmful laws efficient. H.L.A. Hart believes that is impossible to read without sympathy what Rdbruche’s said and to the passionate demand that German legal conscience should be open to the requirements of morality,  however, he mentions that his argument has only half digested the spiritual message of liberalism which he is seeking to convey into the legal profession.

One of the points of connection in the Hart-Fuller debate was a decision by a German postwar court, the case of the Grudge Informer. In that case, a woman in desperation to get rid of her husband, she decided to report her husband to the authorities and stating that he was making insulting remarks about Hitler. Apparently, it was illegal to make such statements, though the wife was under no legal duty to report him. Following that, the husband was found guilty and sentenced to death. The government prosecuted the wife with the offence of “illegally depriving a person of his freedom,” she pleaded that her husband’s imprisonment was following the Nazi statutes and therefore she had committed no crime. Notwithstanding the fact that the husband had been “sentenced by a court for having violated a statute” the court found her guilty of the offence because the statute was “contrary to the sound conscience and sense of justice.” Hart reports that the reasoning has been applied in many later cases, and these were “hailed as a triumph of the doctrines of natural law and as signalling the overthrow of positivism.” With this in mind, the significant debate between H.L.A. Hart and Lon Fuller is based on this type of “grudge cases” and on the dilemmas that those sort of cases brought up. Is an immoral law valid? Both Hart and Fuller take different approaches to this particular question. 

There is an agreement between Hart and Fuller that those actions were morally repugnant in some way, the question is how we view the law. Much of the force of Hart’s argument comes from his insistence on the moral and practical importance of separating conceptual from moral questions about laws. As Hart states “Law is not morality, do not let it supplant morality”. If we follow Hart and the positivist approach, in this case, it means that the woman acted under the law and it means that we are left with a morally unacceptable outcome, so how should we deal with that kind of cases? Hart defended the view that since the woman had committed no crime under the applicable law of the time, the only appropriate way to criminalise her conduct would be under a new retrospective legislation. The sole purpose of choosing this option is that it avoids blurring the distinction between what law is and what law ought to be. Retrospective legislation is not a favourable option as it comes against the rule of law; however, Hart agrees that it is only to be used in exceptional cases. If we embrace the court’s course of thought and affirm that “certain rules cannot be law because of their moral iniquity”, according to Hart, we “confuse one of the most powerful, because it is the simplest forms of moral criticism” and as such we should say that “laws may be laws but to evil to obeyed.”

Hart promoted and adopted a more contemporary analytical outlook to bear on the central problems surrounding legal theory; he moved legal positivism to a different direction while he still insisted on the importance of the separation between law and morality. Additionally, Hart believed that law is not a mere subject of sovereignty, but it helps to constitute sovereignty, he favoured the view that, “one acts because one believes that one ought to do so, not because, or not merely because, one fears the consequences of operating in a contrary way”. He talked about the minimum content of natural law, where he explained his belief that law and morality often do overlap, but without there being any necessary connection between the two. However Lon Fuller argued against a sharp separation of law and morality, but the position he defeated was far apart from the traditional natural law theory. Fuller rejected what he saw as legal positivism, the idea that the sovereign gives orders and the citizens obey. He expressed the belief that those in authority are not entirely free when they create law, they must adapt to factors beyond their control, aspects of human nature and the nature of the society.

By using the Grudge Informer case, Hart was trying to make a point to show that the court’s decision was not punishing a woman for an immoral act, but it was applying a statute established by German law since 1934. Hart argued amongst other things that the courts have no alternative but to implement  an appropriately enacted statute however evil its aims might be. Notably, for Hart, the only way to avoid talking “stark nonsense” is to adopt the view of his positivist predecessors, Jeremy Bentham and John Austin, that the validity of particular laws does not depend on their moral content. Rather, if “laws reach a certain degree of iniquity, then there is a plain moral obligation to resist them and to withhold obedience”.  Hart supported that the fact that some laws are unjust or irrational should not influence their validity as laws. In the light of this, he recognised that the Nazi law was enacted at the time and so the wife, in this case, should not have been punished for following those laws. 

Hart, as a positivist upheld that there isn’t and should now not be any necessary relationship between a legal system and the notion of morality, a legal system can operate effectively regardless of whether or not it is just or moral. In 1961 H.L.A Hart advocated for the separability of law and morality in The Concept of Law, where he supported that there ought to be a clear differentiation between the idea of law as it is and what the law should in fact be. He believed that it was possible to study and apply law in a descriptive sense (how people behave, rather than a normative sense (how people should behave). However, one should not form the idea that Hart believed that law and morality were separated entirely, he conceded to the overlap between them and accepted that there was a connection regarding politics systems as it is now time to mention the example of the Nazi system of Hitler. 

Hart alleged that a legal system based on power, coercion and sanctions, outlined a misguided picture of the law. As Hart famously put it, ‘law is surely not the gunman situation’ and “legal order is surely not to be identified with compulsion.” Eventually, Hart conceded that law is based on “fundamental accepted rules specifying the essential lawmaking procedures.” Following this further Hart argued that legal order is the product of a combination of primary rules and secondary rules, primary rules of obligation, imposing duties and secondary rules conferring powers; in particular the rule of recognition, however, the most important of these is the rule of recognition, the rule that determines legal validity. 

Professor Hart supports the Positivist school of jurisprudence from many of the criticism which been levelled against its insistence on distinguishing the law that is from the law that ought to be. In the Harvard Law Review, he demonstrates the views of Bentham and Austin and expresses their concern with two issues. Firstly the lack of a constitution, cannot derive the fact that if a rule is morally wrong, it cannot be a “rule of law” and secondly that we cannot recognise a “rule of law” merely on the fact that is moral. The Utilitarian separation of law and morals was welcomed form many theorists as it provided clarity and was described as self-evident. However, he continues by commenting on the criticism of this separation and defending Bentham and Austin by explaining that when they were making up this rule of separation, they had in mind specific laws with clear meaning.

In contrast to Hart, Fuller thought that the legal theory debate was best understood as one about different ideas of fidelity to the law at the fundamental level. Fuller, as a modern natural lawyer, supports the notion that law and morality cannot be mutually exclusive from one another and he upholds the decision of the courts nullifying Nazi rules. Fuller’s idea of morality is based on the consistency of the law-making process and, he continues arguing that there is an “internal morality” consisting of eight fundamental principles and that no system of rules which does not comply with these principles of legality is to be referred to as law. Those principles are: laws should be general; they should be promulgated, that citizens might know the standards to which they are being held; retroactive rulemaking and application should be minimised; laws should be understandable; laws should not be contradictory; laws should not require conduct beyond the abilities of those affected; they should remain relatively constant through time and, there should be a congruence between the laws as announced and as applied. What Fuller didn’t realise, however, is that the Germans faced explicit pressure at the time, it was under the dictatorship of Hitler and anyone who spoke against his regime faced harsh sentences. 

Fuller, therefore, tried to express his belief that the Nazi system and its rules were not an actual legal system because in his eyes they were just upholding a Tyrannical regime and failed to meet certain ‘morally internal’ principles that would establish legitimacy. He emphasised that the incorporation of evil aims in law results in removing its very foundation, namely the claim to command fidelity to the law. As Nicola Lacey comments “The Nazi system was so shot through with breaches of law’s inner morality that it has lost any claim to fidelity or legal authority”.

The ‘internal morality’ that Fuller focuses on is similar to the rule of law because it has a procedural aspect as we will see. In the debate, Fuller states that if we look at the Nazi rules, we cannot even say it was law, but why not? Because they did not comply with the inner morality of law as he believes. Fuller expresses his view by saying that “To me, there is nothing shocking in saying that a dictatorship which closes itself with a tinsel of legal form can do far depart from the inner morality of law itself, that it ceases to be a legal system.” If the legislators create rules which are not possible to obey by citizens, it will lead to failure in making the law. In the situation, it will rise to ‘something bad law but not law at all’. We can say that the law is not reflecting a system of rules which is completely incapable of guiding the conduct of ‘legal system.’ Consequently, the grudge informer case serves as a means of demonstrating the opposing views surrounding both the nature of law and its connection with morality. 

Revisiting the Hart-Fuller debate, it is worth reflecting on the remarkable fact that it still speaks to us so powerfully today. Hart and Fuller had much in common, and both present a powerful belief in their legal systems and that of the other. As Leslie Green notes in his paper, both Hart and Fuller share a belief in law and that belief can be separated from that of anarchists such as Kropotkin who wrote of the ‘uselessness and the harmfulness of law’. Both assumed a society organised in a particular way with an appropriate legal framework and system.

The debate between H.L.A Hart and Lon Fuller maintains a special place with the substantial contribution to twentieth-century legal and political philosophy. One valuable way of looking at the debate is as an extended dialogue on the contour and significance of the rule of law. Peter Cane writes that the aim was to look forward rather than backward, using the debate as a point of departure and inspiration.

Through the debate, it becomes a matter of capital importance what position is assigned to the judiciary in the general frame of the government. In any case, Hart and Fuller concur that immoral and unjust legal frameworks are probably not going to be steady and extensive. Lacking ethical quality and equity, can’t charge the dependability of the general population and must rely on restraint. At the point when the repressive regime falls, its framework falls with it. As John Stuart Mill stated “law should not impose its concept of morality on individuals. Individuals should be free to choose their own conduct, as ing as they do not harm others.”

Lord Bingham in his interview with Joshua Rozenberg’s gave his opinion about the rule of law. As he stated, “We live in a world and, to some extent, in society, in which great differences exist of race, of nationality, of religion, of wealth etc. No simple principle is going to transmute all these differences into universal harmony,” however, he believes, and he is satisfied to the fact that the observation of the rule of law is the solitary way we can get closer to a universal secular religion. Another point that he makes is that we want to be governed by laws and not discretions, the rules are there to maintain a standard in our society, it is not possible to have laws that are favourable for everyone in today’s society.

The Hart-Fuller debate shows that there are different ideas concerning the rule of law, Hart believed that the law could be identified regarding criteria of recognition and distinguished from prevailing social norms, arbitrary exercises, morality or religion. The rule of law always stood for the notion that power is constrained by its exercise according to legal forms. But the nature and extent of this constrain has inevitably varied over time. One of the interesting things of the debate as Nicola Lacey pointed out, “is the way it frames the downing of an ambitious idea of an international rule of law-oriented to the universal holding of states and state officials to certain basic criminal law standards.”

Hart and Fuller’s articles quickly became, and remain, a standard reference point for the opposition between legal positivism and natural law theory and for our conception of the rule of law. As far we concern as long we have good law does not mean we can produce a good society. The inner morality must be there in each individual so only we can develop a good society. As always in Jurisprudence, things are not quite as straightforward as we might wish, and some initial ambiguities and uncertainties must be addressed before we can proceed to the primary engagement.

In conclusion, the conflict between Hart and Fuller over these topics as discussed are consistently apparent; neither one is prepared to recognise much to the other’s viewpoint and rests committed to defending their opinions in the face of repeated attacks and allegations from the other. As a result of this, since the arguments of each professor depends conclusively on his understanding of the law and his sense of morality about the nature of man and the world in which man lives, their philosophical disagreements seem incompatible. What is significant from the debate is that we can explore the two opinions of the philosophers about what a “law” is and when is a law to be considered as a “rule of law”. The answer differs in the eyes of each philosopher, and as we can extract from Lord Bingham’s interview, the rule of law still needs to be observed. 

Introduction: in fabrication in a short period of

Introduction: (100 words)

CE1.0                     In
February 2012, started my career in M/s TATA Sikorsky Aerospace Ltd. designated
as a Team Leader-Production. I worked on project titled “Sikorsky S92
Helicopter- Detail parts manufacturing” for a reputed Aerospace client “Sikorsky”.  It is a Green field project established at Hyderabad-India.  My employer is on its way towards
becoming the global supplier of choice of global aerospace OEMs. The programs
are nurtured with the highest level of customer focus and safety, delivered
through robust quality systems, procedures and practices certified to AS- 9100,
NADCAP standards.

Background: (500 Words)

CE1.1                     At
my Endeavours as a Team Leader, with a big team under me as depicted in the
Organization Chart below.  In this
project, I was privileged to get an opportunity to interact closely with global
aerospace OEM’s, clients and visitors like Boeing, Airbus, Rolls Royce, in
particular; among others.  I performed
various roles and took up multiple responsibilities during the course of
project to produce 1800 unique parts.

CE1.2                     The
Nature of the Project was to understand the product features keenly and its
functionality.  In pursuit of this endeavour,
I spent lot of time in studying the design and Engineering drawings of the parts
and also capabilities of machines to perform this operation; so as to get a
feel for the component and have a closer look at the functional aspects of each


CE1.3                     Regular
meetings with cross-functional team members; as well as production technicians
were necessary during every milestone of the project.  I interacted closely with Quality Personnel
and end-users; so as to understand their requirements and concerns on the
product; while providing appropriate solutions to address their problems as and
when it arose. 

CE1.4                     I
took up the role of new product development viz. Forming of Critical
components using Hydro forming machine and Aluminium form blocks; which was very
critical in reducing handling efforts and proving the parts formed by ensuring
parts meeting the Engineering i.e. E=M.

CE1.5                     The
Core Objective of the project was to prove out the parts fabricated
and the process capabilities used in fabrication in a short period of time.

Objective of the project was
safe and tidy work centres. Third Objective was to reduce the cost of fabrication by eliminating
waste by nearly 40%.  Final
Objective was to implement
proved manufacturing process to ramp up the production with optimized cost and
easy method to operation.

CE1.6  My Roles and Responsibilities in the Project:

Played the crucial
role of a production engineer for technology identification for components
fabrication and by using production readiness review method was prepared to
start production or FAI, wherein I mentored 35 highly qualified technicians and
5 methods engineers.


Understood the
types of aerospace sheet metal parts, tools and its assembly structure and
their functional aspects.


Interpretation of
aerospace engineering drawing for sheet metal parts and the tools used; and its
manufacturing, testing and assembly processes.


Process mapping
and Value stream mapping.


Fishbone diagram
with failure mode effect analysis (FMEA).


Inspection and fit
check of new tools prior to fabrication


Mistake proofing,
Poka yoke, Report generation/ control plan.


Worked with tool
designers, fabricators and provided design and fabrication solutions.


Core member of MRB
(Material review board) CFT team to conduct RRCA / FMEA analysis.


Prepared SOP
(Standard operating procedure) forming machines with training from OEM’s and by
studying Operation manuals of machine.


Supported and
prepared manufacturing instruction sheet and Visual aids for operations.


Worked with Supply
chain to resolve technical queries of multiple suppliers and assisted them in
tool procurement and helped in negotiating the Quoted price for fabrication of
tools and fixtures based on manufacturing complexity.


Representative for
sheet metal shop in presenting the progress of task to the top management.


knowledge of Aerospace standards and took cognizance of same during the course
of providing Engineering Solutions


Performed allied
duties as required on the job


Engineering Activities: (1468 Words)

CE1.7                     As
soon as I conceptualized the thought of fundamental Sheet Metal parts
fabrication for FAI, I considered the whole operation as in my purview; thanks
to my rich experience.

CE1.8                     To
start with, I concentrated on the Engineering drawings and particulars,
utilizing their subtle elements that was given as part of project
specifications/ outline.

CE1.9                     I
recorded down the issues in the process like raw material selection, bend
radius and angle etc. among others; thus, holding the forming process.

CE1.10                  I noticed poor offset in form
blocks tooling pins position and bend radius mismatch prompting shift in formed
mould line; thus, a noteworthy level 3 defect. 
was defined as a complex problem that warranted
me to set it right and obtain clearances from the Technical Director
coordinating the project; who was operating from Stratford! 

CE1.11                  I
involved in a range of prior learning options – I refreshed my knowledge with
some of my engineering subjects, Consulted Sheet Metal Aerospace experts and
browsed the internet to find solutions, integrated same with customer
specifications; thus, eventually resolved the problem on hand.  The problem did not end there i.e. I had the
responsibility thereon to decrease process time in Heat treatment section due
to material handling, which was affecting the surface straightness on parts.  However, the Bottlenecks reference prompted
me to take cognizance of Health and Safety (HSE) issues on Shop floor practice

CE1.12                  Prior
to beginning of the project, I gathered enough material on standard working
procedures, critical customer specifications etc.  The onus was on me to work with Creation Layout
Design Group and mentor them. 

CE1.13                 I
considered the “necessities” from those archives as the most indispensable
ones, which gave me right direction all through the production process.  I treasured technical data sourced for future
use in the project.

CE1.14                  I
was single point of contact (SPOC) with client to take calls on Technical
problems encountered by them on quality related issues.  Thus, I upgraded my skills on re-working
skills with most recent data obtained from the team and sourced through my
prior learning options as well.  I
advised Manager of each group to name their agent for the task.  I lead the cross-functional group (CFG) and
was in-charge of whole yield of the plant. I got the support for this time
arrangement from concerned authority on site, which helped me to immediately
submit the sourced data to concerned teams. 

CE1.15                  I had to update
the client on weekly basis on Progress of production.  The process flow I designed was of less of
obstacles; thus, portable as compared to the bulky design it was hitherto.  The client support I provided was predominantly
through WebEx Video conference; as the clients were spread across the
globe.  I streamed same data to the cross
functional groups.

CE1.16                  I recorded minutes of meeting
with the CFGs and co-appointment for production exercises, which projectile
focuses were painstakingly followed by me being cognizant of basic issues.  This gave clear beginning of the creation of
core objectives as set for the project. I worked in close association with
Engineering teams and verified all data as received back from CFGs.

CE1.17                  Component
trials were conducted revealed a host of defects, which was fixed by my team
under my astute guidance.  It was a
learning experience indeed; same also provided me with an opportunity to know
the reasons for conceivable failures that normally happen in various stages of
production.  I devoted time enough on
tooling supplier site to comprehend the complex procedures encountered in
production stages; thus could troubleshoot issues by taking a lead and also
being accessible to my team playing the role of their mentor!

CE1.18                  I went to client office during
various phases of the project, when significant developments happened;
including the most important ‘First article inspection’ (FAI). Some of said FAI
issues were to meet precision tolerance and weight of the part should meet
engineering drawing requirements, Part of new created item, extraordinary
apparatus for cutting and forming operations and so on. I efficiently tackled
such issues with virtually no assistance from the client; rather involving
myself into a range of prior learning options and automated the system for easy
use.  I submitted Inspection reports to
client and could succeed in obtaining their approval for production

CE1.19                  Conducting
weight and dimension inspection was a significant turning point in the
component manufactured by me.  I
completed all tests on time as per client specifications.  It was a proactive methodology of work
culture followed by me, spending quality time to comprehend test determinations
/ necessities; by working in cohesion with the operators and engineering
team.  Same gave time enough for the
group to proactively think as well and be ready for future tests.  In the process, I helped the team to conduct
all tests as required on job; adhering to client specifications and ensuring
that none of the tests are missed out using control plan.

CE1.20                  The test report generated on
the FAI part produced by my guidance on VSM site designed by me was submitted
for approval to the client.  The report
explained broader issues of time-management among other benefits as required in
production process.  The completed
reports on approval, were thereon transferred into item life cycle
administration database.

CE1.21                  A Senior Administration group
was responsible for approval of the project and give a go ahead for future
stages of the project.  I arranged time
and motion study trails to be conducted replacing non-value added activities,
so as to decrease procedure waste.  Same
done through established industrial practices such as SMED and PFMEA and
augment production reducing cost and time; both.  I prepared a costing report and submitted to
Bill of Material division for approval. 
On approval, a Task Status was displayed in corridors of workplace for the
production team to take due cognizance of such modern methods of working. 

CE1.22                  Through
consistent enhancements in procedures and design; I augmented production and
helped in reducing assembly costs that was soaring with each passing day.  The tasks included configuration changes and
accepting the outline through a progression of suggestion tests for
sourcing.  My team felt that it could be
hard to convince the client for such a change; just to avoid costs and ignoring
the innumerable advantages the system had to offer.  I gave demos to the client on practicality of
the system, which was based on ground reality of issues.  I was firm to go with such systems; thus,
proved my points beyond and more; to ultimately win the heart of my client by
providing due clarity on the subject.

CE1.23                  The
4 weeks VSM training programme undergone by me helped me to design a system to
adjust levels of production flow. 
Besides, another 2-week orientation on FMEA (an instructional course)
helped me to gain knowledge enough on procedures to be followed in
manufacturing of aerospace components. 

Encountered and Solutions Provided:

CE1.24                  Initially
while Designing the VSM layout; the Form block storage area got reduced and
obviously with that the space also. 
However, it was a flawed design. 
That is, there was hardly 780 m2 area for storage against the planned of 6162m2. Same was causing difficulties to the operating team in
form block handling.  After investigating
the problem, I decided to propose for vertical storage Carousal which can be
placed in 780m2 instead of Horizontal storage system. which was aimed to
overcome the problem of less space for tools storage.  This re-design was also keeping in mind the Ergonomics,
Health and Safety issues of the technicians and operating team.  

CE1.25                  As
I did not have enough knowledge to efficiently handle the PROBLEM on hand; I
had to investigate the subject and gain more knowledge on same. Therefore, I
went to my basics and referred my engineering subject on “Production technology
and Material Handling Experimental Techniques”. 
I further analysed the problem using Brain Storming activities. I modified
the design , which helped me to compute the space as indicated by the
methodology.  I found that the outline
cycles were still lower than what the client expected as such, I
proposed option technique i.e. implementing POKA YOKE methods and
modified the form blocks.   I found the
right solution i.e. it helped in mistake proofing and at the same time ensuring
zero defects that cost overheads are not overshooting. thereby addressing the forming
mould line shift and bend radius issue. 
Besides, the design permitted forming in single Press, avoiding
re-pressing tasks; which saved time and money. 
The client was eventually happy of this design change and approved the
project as coming well beyond their expectations.  The client and my management alike; showered
praise on my unstinted efforts on the count sans the odds faced by me at every
stage of this project.

(100 words)

CE1.26                  This
was one of my best Green filed project experiences, as it gave me an
opportunity to work with a diverse group of Engineers.  The set objectives of the project were duly
met.  I provided feasible design
solutions for production process flow for sheet metal components fabrication by
implementing a user-friendly and flexible VSM layout design. The process
capabilities were improved.  Tidy work
centres was ensured by me; giving due credence to Occupational Health and
Safety issues.  The project cost was
reduced and was well within the stringent budget.  My team acclaimed my efforts and the project
was well received by my client. My employer was pleased and suitably rewarded
me too!