According scope, in situ means that the bioremediation

According to Crawford (2010), bioremediation has been defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return altered environments by contaminants to its original condition. In a brief approach, bioremediation is divided into two forms. The first form is in situ remediation. In situ literally means &on site& and within the bioremediation scope, in situ means that the bioremediation process has taken place at the site of contamination without the translocation of the polluted materials for further treatment elsewhere. Ex situ remediation involves performing the remediation activity off the area of contamination by moving the polluted materials. The first remediation technique is rhizofiltration, which has been illustrated by Singh (2008),atype of phytoremediation (use of special plant roots to remediate contaminated water through absorption of the pollutants) and it is mainly an in situ method. The contaminants are removed by getting absorbed through the root systems of plants into the stems and leaves. The plants are then removed and replaced to continue the cycle until better levels are achieved. Rhizofiltration is mostly aimed at removing heavy metal contaminants and rhizofiltration may be applicable to the treatment of both surface and groundwater, industrial and residential effluents, agricultural runoffs and diluted sludges among the many contaminants. Rhizofiltration reduces cost of processing as it is done on site, but it has its own limitations and one being that the filtration will not go further than where the roots end and this drawback could make the process to take years to reach a regulatory level.Bio-sparging is an in situ remediation technique, used to treat saturated soils and groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like petroleumhydrocarbons. Bio-sparging involves the injection of a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium into the ground through a system of wells, air compressors and vacuum pumps drilled on the surface and directly below the point of contamination and it involves injecting a gaseous nedium below groundwater or soil. On the surface, the air compressor pumps air underground through the wells and as air and vapor are mixed together, they are pulled out to the surface through a system of vacuum pumps going up where the contaminants are extracted. The major drawback with Bio-sparging is that it is extremely expensive to set up and run but, this process helps in having a fast clean up.The third technique is bio-factor. Crawford (2010) explains that it is an ex situ technique as it involves the process of  pumping soil and water from a contaminated plume and processing it through a specially engineered containment system or vessel designed to support a biological environment. In a bio-factor, the degradation  is greater than in situ because the contained environment is more controllable and predictable. The best example of a bio-reactor is the treatment of sewage and wastewater. In these systems, there is a continous  presence  of a free-flowing, chemically inert medium which acts as a breeding ground for the bacteria that break down the raw sewage. The bioreactors usually have separate tanks and a machines to speed the separation of water and biosolids. Through the bioreactor process, the contaminated water is filtered and treated until it is fit for reuse and the the biosolids can be collected used as fertilizer since most bioreactors are used for sewage works . Bioaugmentation  is the addition of bacteria and other growth factors  required to enhance the rate of   degradation   of a   contaminant . It is an in situ technique as bioaugmentation usually requires studying the  indigenous   varieties present in the location to determine if   biostimulation   is possible. If the indigenous variety do not have the   metabolic   capability to perform the remediation process,   exogenous   varieties with such sophisticated pathways are introduced. The advantage of bioaugmentation is that it is one of the most versatile techniques as it can be used in many situations including soil contaminations and petroleum spills, but even though it is highly effective, if the polluted location is not carefully studied, it becomes hard to get rid of the contaminationFinally,  bioventing is is a process which works in the same way as a Bio-sparging only that in bioventing its only the sil and not the groundwater being dealt with. The degrading medium is supplied in a well used and is introduced into the  contaminated soil and later on vacuum pumps uptake the contaminants up to the surface for treatment. This is the most common method of dealing with underground soil contaminations as it is highly effective.

he regin. However, like every political group they

he Manchu overtook the ming dynasty and became known as the Qing dynasty, aka the last Chinese dynasty. Following the early forceful and productive Qing rulers, the Qianlong reign began in 1735 and lasted until about 1796. The Qianlong improved bureaucracy, focused on military expansion and had a fairly successful regin. However, like every political group they experienced hardships such as piracy, and radical uprisings. The Qianlong’s problems increased dramatically resulting from the popularity of opium imports, a problem pasted to the Daoguang emperor, 1820-1850. The Daoguang attempted the combat the problems experienced in the previous rulers’ reigns by creating an Imperial Household Department, to prevent a too high of a concentration of power to government officials, and a Grand Council, a new decision-making body that enabled the emperor to better control the government. Despite the emperor’s efforts significant social and economic turmoil followed in China, mainly as a resulting of China’s increasing addiction to opium that had even worked its way up to government officials. The Chinese anti-opium efforts, such as banning usage and punishing distributors, caused a lot of tension with Great Britain leading them the first opium war. After fighting a very uneven war, as the Qing had no effective force or method against the strong British navy, peace was once again restored with the Treaty of Nanjing. The treaty gave the British significant power and many immunities in China. Most notably, China was forced to open its ports to British trade and became a sort of colony of Great Britain. Chinese citizens were obviously opposed to the idea of British rule and a strong anti-foreign and anti-government mood was produced which lead to the the second opium war. The Qing, still not able to match the strength of the rest of the world, had no choice but to give into the rest of the world’s demands. France, Russia, and the U.S. wanted privileges similar to those given to Great Britain and forced China into unbalanced treaties. These treaties had a detrimental effect on the Qing empire as they not only undermined their rule but offended the moral and cultural values of China. Partial Foreign rule meant a serious blow to the dynastic rule that had been over China since its original colonization. The Qing dynasty, and all of China for that matter, had a very hard time adjusting to foreign presence and increasing pressure to westernize. They viewed Westerners as useless destructive barbarians and wanted absolutely nothing to do with them. For years China made no effort to advance and remained withdrawn from the rest of the world buried within the rubble of their traditions. The 19th century brought about a series of uprising, including the Taiping rebellion, the Nian rebellion, and Muslim rebellions, all resulting from social discontent. In response to the seemingly constant revolts the Qing were forced to rely on local armies which caused a gradual decentralization of the government. Power shifted from the emperors and manchu leader to the Chinese governors who were credited with controlling the rebellions. The various uprising in combination with numerous natural disasters brought substantial damage and devastation to China. The self-strengthening movement followed this destructive time in Chinese history with an attempt to introduce western technology to China. After the practically failed movement Chinese physician, writer, and revolutionary, Sun Yat-sen lead a successful revolt, deemed the Chinese Revolution against the Qing Dynasty thus killing Imperial China. As western powers and Japan increasingly interfered in China, along with numerous civilian rebellions the divine mandate that seemed permit dynastic rule seemed to have been forfeited as China aimed to become a republic. However, with its rocky society and economic state, China was in no way prepared actualize this wish. Instead Sun Yat-sen gave up his provisional role as acting president to Yuan Shikai, who promised to work to establish a republican government and unify China. Yuan appealed to the conservatives in China, and even more so to the army. Yaun held his promise and China became a republic however, The government had run out of money, states were still largely under the control of local warlords, and the republic’s national assembly was unproductive and could not agree. The revolutionaries victory was cut short as Yaun made grabs for more power and became more of a dictator than a president. All his previous supporters turned against him as the four years of his rule came to an end leaving an ugly messy and unstable China. Citizens were heavily opposed to the republican-ese government and China was falling back down the path to destruction. The imperial country turned republic was well on its way to warlordism.A new revolution made way in China with the establishment of the Nationalist and Chinese Communist parties. As the two parties fought for power after the death of Sun Yat-sen the country entered into numerous political based civil wars. The Nationalist maintained their hold on the Communist party and ruled for nearly 2 decades until a communist victory in 1949, giving the communist party the spotlight. The communist party was a party for the peasants, oriented around Marxist ideology and aiming for industrial modernization. Once granted power, communist leaders realized that in order to unite China they would have to gradually switch into communism so they placed their communist goals on the back burner and focused on implementing strong public and governmental order. Many communists party members saw these compromises as a betrayal of their revolution. Their frustrations intensified and ironically, the compromises intended to ensure a united successful China lead to a divide in their own party. After a rocky transition the communist party began to carry out their goal of rapid industrialization along which a stronger united China emerged. The strong centralized government style of the communists was gladly welcomed as the economy boomed and society flourished which lead to a fairly accepted transition towards socialism and increased security. As rapid advancement slowed down the Chinese became dissatisfied, hence the start of the Chinese cultural revolution (1966-1976)

It top 100 ranked universities has been constantly

    

It is often touted that the world has been shifting towards
Asia. Without a doubt, innovation has clearly got a good footing
in the East and higher education has been no exception; in the last decade the
global center of mass of the top  100 ranked universities
has been constantly shifting towards the East particularly China.

According to 2018 QS world universities ranking out of top 100
universities 23 universities are Asian among them 11 universities are based in
People’s Republic of China (including Hong Kong). The number of students who
choose to study at a university overseas has grown-up significantly in recent
decades.  The composition of the globally
mobile student body has changed notably over the last decade, with student
mobility shifting from a largely unidirectional east-west flow to a
multidirectional movement and encompassing non-traditional sending and host
countries.

China, in particular, has invested significantly in its higher education
sector in the last few years. China’s investment
in internationalized education expands to the top government level, with a
conscious understanding that education is a means of investing in the
population and student mobility is a chance to influence the future
generation. China has built up its own universities to compete with
‘world-class’ institutions through C9 League, Project
211 and Project 985, spreading access to Chinese language and culture
learning and using English as medium of instruction by many universities for
different programs.  

National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological
University of Singapore, Peking University, Tsinghua University, The University
of Tokyo, Seoul National University, The University of Hong Kong are some of
the world class research universities of Asia where even the American and
European Students dream for getting their higher study. These universities are
as competitive as elite European and American universities in terms of quality
education, research and world class infrastructures. Japan was already one of
the global education hubs for higher study and Singapore has established itself
as world research hub from last one decade. But if you see the recent trend and
development Chinese Universities have already uplifted them compare to other
Asian elite universities and established as the world class research institutes
and higher study centre as well as future heart of world higher study and
research hubs. Peking, Tsinghua and Fudan universities of China are just behind
few British and American world renowned universities in world universities
ranking as well as in terms of quality education and research for higher
study.  It is a time to view China not
just as a follower but as potentially a global boss in higher education.

Governments particularly those in non-traditional host countries (Mostly
Asian) continuously  developing a extensive
arrays of policies to develop the appeal of their higher education sector to foreign
students and scholars, to develop research and teaching links with
international partners with the aim of increasing institutional visibility.
Japan and China, in particular, have targeted international students as a way
to achieve a number of national aims, including cheering the internationalization
of higher education in their countries (in part as a tool to drive up research
and teaching standards), developing links between Japanese and Chinese
universities and peer institutions overseas, and developing a workforce that
meets the needs of their industries.

Chinese universities are internationalizing in many directions. China’s
President Xi Jinping had launched numbers of new international initiatives in
2015–16, reflecting a big push for China to develop closer links with other
countries across a range of areas.

As the broad outline of student mobility slowly changes, political and
demographic changes continue to shape government policies towards international
students. In Asia, for instance, ASEAN nations are working to support local
students to study in Asia rather than going to western countries’ universities,
and already, have launched a ‘Common Space of Higher Education’ to promote
cross-border student mobility and academic incorporation across Southeast Asia.

 

The international population of students who move to another country to
study continuously rising. The number of Students studying abroad reached
almost 5 million in 2014, more than double the 2.1 million in 2000, with an
annual rise of 10%. The OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) has anticipated that, with demographic
changes, international student mobility is likely to reach 8 million students
per year by 2025. The balance of host nation is beginning to change which was
constant over past decade. From several years the USA remains the trendiest
destination for international students, followed by the UK, Germany, Australia
and France. However, the USA and UK’s conventional market share is waning, with
China, Japan, and South Korea increasing in popularity among Asian and African
students for higher study. Among Asian higher education hubs Japan and Korea
enjoy high numbers of international students from regional countries: 81% of
international students in Japan and 75% in Korea come from other Asian countries.
 International student mobility is changing
with conventional destinations losing market share.

Recently developed geopolitical environments such as
Brexit and the US’s  taking back  hand from multilateral trade and cooperation generates
waves of uncertainty in higher study education concerning international
cooperation, the free movement of students, education, scientific knowledge and
ideas. China is utilizing this situation and 
has already introduced new international initiatives with its New Silk
Road (One Belt One Road) project, which could potentially spread and incorporate
important areas of the world across the Euro-Asian continents, but likely on
new and different conditions, and also for higher study education.

The size of China’s higher education, research and
development system and the speed at which it develops to global standards is
unstoppable. China has already made a ‘Double World-Class Project’ aiming to
have 40 world-class universities by mid-century, will have an impact on its
major competitors globally, not least as it seeks to cooperate with academic
partners along the Silk Road.

The economic powerhouse is moving from the old mechanized
countries to Asian countries.  And there are
good reasons to believe the powerhouse of higher education will move too.

FINAL in there) 3. Engine room 2. Electrical

FINAL SHED (for
final inspection)

STAGE WISE
INSPECTION:

First of all
under frame will be ready the car body. Then car body put it on under frame.

4. Cooling room(compressor ,radiators ,motors and
bloore are fitted in there)

3. Engine room

2. Electrical room

1.  Driver cab
(in which driver and operators are sitted)

CAR BODY SECTION:

Under frame and
care body prepare in fabrication section

Every locomotive
have their own drawings for electric wirring. Every wire have their own
specific number and lable.

WIRRING SECTION:

All electronics
parts are import from China OR German.

Latter of project
compilation to distributors

      Light trial from factory to peshawar or
attok

INSPECTION SHED:

v MECHANICAL SECTION

v PIPING SECTION

v ELECTICAL SECTION

5. Batteries

4. Generators

3. Alternator

2. Motor

1. Compressor

ASSEMBLY SECTION

BREAKWAN:

Production
section:

MAIN
STORE: for small parts (Assembly needed like nut , bolt , revert etc)

CAR
BODY SECTION:

5. Traction Motors(395-600 HP) 6 motor for Each :
for wheel movement

4. Springs

3. Suspension tubes

2. Different parts

1. Wheel

1_
Rear bogie, 2_ Front bogie

BOGIE
ASSEMBLING SECTION:

11.        
Radial
Drill machine

10.        
Bogie
frame milling machine with heads and head carrying 42 types of tools

9. Master copy Section (for tools)

8. Universal Grinding machine

7. Slotting machine

6. Vertical lathe

5. Universal lathe machine

4. Leveling machine

3. Threading machin

2. Drilling Machine

1. Lathe machine (all types)

MACHINE
SHOP: for tool

33.        
Chemical
treatment plant

32.        
Layout
marking machine

31.        
Marking
surface plate

30.        
Painting
section

29.        
Grid
blasting for whole bogie

28.        
Annealing
furnace “heat process”

27.        
Gear
cases “train part”

26.        
Bogie
section “jis k ooper engine rakha jata hai” : train part

Punch
presses are large machines with either a ‘C’ type frame, or a ‘portal’ (bridge)
type frame. The C type has the hydraulic ram at the top foremost part, whereas
the portal frame is much akin to a complete circle with the ram being centered
within the frame to stop frame deflection or distortion.

A
punch press is a type of machine press used to cut holes in material. It can be
small and manually operated and hold one simple die set, or be very large, CNC
operated, with a multi-station turret and hold a much larger and complex die
set.

PUNCH
PRESS MACHINE:

 

Since
any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools –
drills, saws, etc. – modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single
“cell”. In other installations, a number of different machines are
used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the
component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed
to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely
matches the original CAD.

 

In
modern CNC systems, the design of a mechanical part and its manufacturing
program is highly automated. The part’s mechanical dimensions are defined using
computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing
directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The resulting
directives are transformed (by “post processor” software) into the
specific commands necessary for a particular machine to produce the component,
and then are loaded into the CNC machine.

 

Computer
numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of
computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This
is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or
levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone.

C.N.C
MACHINE :

Band
saws dedicated to industrial metal-cutting use, such as for structural steel in
fabrication shops and for bar stock in machine shops, are available in vertical
and horizontal designs. Typical band speeds range from 40 feet (12 meters) per
minute to 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) per minute, although specialized band saws
are built for friction cutting of hard metals and run band speeds to 15,000
feet per minute. Metal-cutting band saws are usually equipped with brushes or
brush wheels to prevent chips from becoming stuck in between the blade’s teeth.
Systems which cool the blade with cutting fluid are also common equipment on
metal-cutting band saws. The coolant washes away swarf and keeps the blade cool
and lubricated.

BaND
SAW MACHINE:

25.        
Grid
blasting machine 2 types S M

The
machine may be foot powered, less commonly hand powered, or mechanically or
hydraulically powered. It works by first clamping the material with a ram. A
moving blade then comes down across a fixed blade to shear the material. For
larger shears the moving blade may be set on an angle or “rocked” in
order to shear the material progressively from one side to the other; this
angle is referred to as the shear angle. Setting the blade on an angle
decreases the amount of force required, but increases the stroke. A 5 degree
shear angle decreases the force by about 20%. The amount of energy used is
still the same. The moving blade may also be inclined 0.5 to 2.5°, called the
rake angle, to keep the material from becoming wedged between the blades.
However, raking the blade compromises the squareness of the edge

Shearing
machine:

for
5-6mm sheet cutting

grid
blasting equipment typically consists of a chamber in which sand and air are
mixed. The mixture travels through a hand-held nozzle to direct the particles
toward the surface or workpiece. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes, sizes,
and materials. Boron carbide is a popular material for nozzles because it
resists abrasive wear well.

 

grid
blasting or bead blasting is a generic term for the process of smoothing,
shaping and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that
surface at high speeds; the effect is similar to that of using sandpaper, but
provides a more even finish with no problems at corners or crannies. grid blasting
can occur naturally, usually as a result of particles blown by wind causing
aeolian erosion, or artificially, using compressed air. An artificial grid blasting
process was patented by Benjamin Chew Tilghman on October 18, 1870.

GRID
BLASTING FOR PARTS:

 

Grinding
is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low
surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in
dimensions in grinding is of the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it
tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about
0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which
grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a
diverse field.

 

A
grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or
machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive
wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel’s surface cuts a
small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation.

GRINDING
MACHINE:

Laser
cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically
used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used
by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists. Laser cutting works by directing
the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics
and CNC (computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the
laser beam generated. A typical commercial laser for cutting materials involved
a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto
the material. The focused laser beam is directed at the material, which then
either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving
an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used
to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.

LASER
CUTTING MACHINE:

24.        
(manual
laser cutting machine)

The
basic plasma cutting process involves creating an electrical channel of
superheated, electrically ionized gas i.e. plasma from the plasma cutter itself,
through the work piece to be cut, thus forming a completed electric circuit
back to the plasma cutter via a grounding clamp. This is accomplished by a
compressed gas (oxygen, air, inert and others depending on material being cut)
which is blown through a focused nozzle at high speed toward the work piece. An
electrical arc is then formed within the gas, between an electrode near or
integrated into the gas nozzle and the work piece itself. The electrical arc
ionizes some of the gas, thereby creating an electrically conductive channel of
plasma. As electricity from the cutter torch travels down this plasma it
delivers sufficient heat to melt through the work piece. At the same time, much
of the high velocity plasma and compressed gas blow the hot molten metal away,
thereby separating i.e. cutting through the work piece.

flame
cutting is a method of cutting ferrous metals in which the metal is heated by a
torch to about 800°C and is oxidized by a stream of oxygen from the torch.

23.        
(flame-able
cutting machine)/gas cutting section cutting “capacity 10-60mm”

hydraulic bending press is a machine tool that
changes the shape of a workpiece by the application of pressure.

22.        
(hydraulic
bending press machines 4 for) 500 tons

21.        
(under
frame welding position)

20.        
(under
frame section)

FABRICATION
SECTION:

20ton,30ton,40ton

OVERHEAD CRANES:

 

 

 

Punch
presses are large machines with either a ‘C’ type frame, or a ‘portal’ (bridge)
type frame. The C type has the hydraulic ram at the top foremost part, whereas
the portal frame is much akin to a complete circle with the ram being centered
within the frame to stop frame deflection or distortion.

A
punch press is a type of machine press used to cut holes in material. It can be
small and manually operated and hold one simple die set, or be very large, CNC
operated, with a multi-station turret and hold a much larger and complex die
set.

PUNCH
PRESS MACHINE:

Since
any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools –
drills, saws, etc. – modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single
“cell”. In other installations, a number of different machines are
used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the
component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed
to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely
matches the original CAD.

In
modern CNC systems, the design of a mechanical part and its manufacturing
program is highly automated. The part’s mechanical dimensions are defined using
computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing
directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The resulting
directives are transformed (by “post processor” software) into the
specific commands necessary for a particular machine to produce the component,
and then are loaded into the CNC machine.

 

Computer
numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of
computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This
is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or
levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone.

C.N.C
MACHINE :

Band saws dedicated to industrial
metal-cutting use, such as for structural steel in fabrication shops and for
bar stock in machine shops, are available in vertical and horizontal designs.
Typical band speeds range from 40 feet (12 meters) per minute to 5,000 feet
(1,500 meters) per minute, although specialized band saws are built for
friction cutting of hard metals and run band speeds to 15,000 feet per minute.
Metal-cutting band saws are usually equipped with brushes or brush wheels to
prevent chips from becoming stuck in between the blade’s teeth. Systems which
cool the blade with cutting fluid are also common equipment on metal-cutting
band saws. The coolant washes away swarf and keeps the blade cool and
lubricated.

BaND
SAW MACHINE:

The machine may be foot powered, less commonly
hand powered, or mechanically or hydraulically powered. It works by first
clamping the material with a ram. A moving blade then comes down across a fixed
blade to shear the material. For larger shears the moving blade may be set on
an angle or “rocked” in order to shear the material progressively
from one side to the other; this angle is referred to as the shear angle.
Setting the blade on an angle decreases the amount of force required, but
increases the stroke. A 5 degree shear angle decreases the force by about 20%.
The amount of energy used is still the same. The moving blade may also be
inclined 0.5 to 2.5°, called the rake angle, to keep the material from becoming
wedged between the blades. However, raking the blade compromises the squareness
of the edge

Shearing
machine:

grid
blasting equipment typically consists of a chamber in which sand and air are
mixed. The mixture travels through a hand-held nozzle to direct the particles
toward the surface or work piece. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes, sizes,
and materials. Boron carbide is a popular material for nozzles because it
resists abrasive wear well.

grid blasting or bead blasting is a generic
term for the process of smoothing, shaping and cleaning a hard surface by
forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds; the effect is
similar to that of using sandpaper, but provides a more even finish with no
problems at corners or crannies. grid blasting can occur naturally, usually as
a result of particles blown by wind causing aeolian erosion, or artificially,
using compressed air. An artificial grid blasting process was patented by
Benjamin Chew Tilghman on October 18, 1870.

GRID
BLASTING FOR PARTS:

 

Grinding
is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low
surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in
dimensions in grinding is of the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it
tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about
0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which
grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a
diverse field.

A
grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or
machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive
wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel’s surface cuts a
small chip from the work-piece via shear deformation.

GRINDING
MACHINE:

Laser cutting is a technology that uses a
laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing
applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and
hobbyists. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser
most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC (computer numerical
control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. A typical
commercial laser for cutting materials involved a motion control system to
follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused
laser beam is directed at the material, which then either melts, burns,
vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a
high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut
flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.

LASER
CUTTING MACHINE:

The basic plasma
cutting process involves creating an electrical channel of superheated,
electrically ionized gas i.e. plasma from the plasma cutter itself, through the
work piece to be cut, thus forming a completed electric circuit back to the
plasma cutter via a grounding clamp. This is accomplished by a compressed gas
(oxygen, air, inert and others depending on material being cut) which is blown
through a focused nozzle at high speed toward the work piece. An electrical arc
is then formed within the gas, between an electrode near or integrated into the
gas nozzle and the work piece itself. The electrical arc ionizes some of the
gas, thereby creating an electrically conductive channel of plasma. As
electricity from the cutter torch travels down this plasma it delivers
sufficient heat to melt through the work piece. At the same time, much of the
high velocity plasma and compressed gas blow the hot molten metal away, thereby
separating i.e. cutting through the work piece.

flame
cutting is a method of cutting ferrous metals in which the metal is heated by a
torch to about 800°C and is oxidized by a stream of oxygen from the torch.

PLASMA
CUTTING MACHINE:

The hydraulic press depends on Pascal’s
principle-the pressure throughout a closed system is constant. One part of the
system is a piston acting as a pump, with a modest mechanical force acting on a
small cross-sectional area; the other part is a piston with a larger area which
generates a correspondingly large mechanical force. Only small-diameter tubing
(which more easily resists pressure) is needed if the pump is separated from
the press cylinder

hydraulic bending press is a machine tool that
changes the shape of a work piece by the application of pressure. its power is
500 tons and capacity of banding is 10-60mm sheet. when a work piece is
required t bend then machine operate insert work piece into the machine and
hydraulic force applied on it for bending. there are lots of angle have in this
machine for bending.

HYDRAULIC
PRESS MACHINES:

Mobile
Tailstock allows you to adjust from very short to very long weldments(unit
formed by welding together an assembly of pieces) and clear the shop floor when
using only the headstock. 2 Post machines with Fixed, Adjustable or Mobile tailstocks;
from 8000 to 75,000 LB capacity. Single Post Postioners, 2 or 3 axis. Elevating
and Non-Elevating Positioners are available, with or without horizontal travel.

This
machine Lift wide work pieces up to a height of 144″ in 35 seconds, rotate and
lower to the most auspicious elevation/position for flat welding or assembly. appropriate
positioning for maximum welded quality and discharge rates. Reduced Handling
Time compared to turning with a crane = huge cost savings Increased throughout
in less time. Adjustable tailstock helps you for smooth and efficient
horizontal movement to entertain
shifting work piece lengths.

      The ability to lift-and-rotate huge
components with welding Positioners for Welding and Assembly will crucially
increase your manufacturing strength and profits.

UNDER
FRAME POSITIONER:

      a locomotive frame is the structure that
forms the backbone of the railway locomotive, giving it strength and supporting
the superstructure elements such as a cab, boiler or bodywork. the vast
majority of locomotives have had a frame structure of some kind. the frame may
in turn be supported by axles directly attached to it, or it may be mounted on
bogies, or a combination of the two. the bogies in turn will have frames of
their own. Under frame welding positioner is the main machine of Under fame
section, on this machine, they easily joint all the parts with welding process.

      in this section, railways under frames are
manufactured. under frame are defined below.

UNDER
FRAME SECTION:

19.        
layout
marking machine

18.        
marking
surface plate

17.        
painting
section

16.        
grid
blasting for whole bogie

15.        
annealing
furnace “heat process”

14.        
Gear
cases “train part”

13.        
bogie
section “jis k ooper engine rakha jata hai” : train part

12.        
punch
press machine

11.        
C.N.C

10.        
bend
saw machine

9. grid blasting machine 2 types S M

8. shearing machine for 5-6mm sheet cutting

7. grid blasting for parts

6. grinding machine

5. (manual laser cutting machine)

4. (flame-able cutting machine)/gas cutting
section cutting “capacity 10-60mm”

3. (hydraulic press machines 4 for bending) 500
tons

2. (under frame welding position)

1. (under frame section)

fabrication section is the main section of Pakistan
locomotive factory. it is held in main workshop of factory. lots  of work done in fabrication section like
cutting , welding and grid blasting etc which is listed below.

FABRICATION SETION:

Carrying capacity of a hopper wagon is 70 ton.
it has 4 doors two doors on both sides for unloading. doors are totally automatic
with compressor system. it can also be operated by manually. they designed on
hopper style for easy unloading.

Hopper wagon is basically a
vehicle type which is use to carrying and traveling the coal from mines to coal
factory. it also use for coal distribution. they convert old passenger bogies
into hopper wagon by putting mechanical works on it like cutting, welding and
molding processes etc .they also doing maintenance for old locomotives.

Recently Pakistan Locomotive
Factory has been completed a project of 110 hopper wagons which is converted
for old passenger bogies to hopper wagon. and handed over to Pakistan railway
in this project they get old bogies from Pakistan railway and convert them to
hopper wagons.

All projects history define that
Pakistan locomotive factory mostly import their parts from China & German
or we can say that China & German is the partner in business of locomotive
with Pakistan Locomotive Factory.

ü 5 diesel electric locomotives of
3000 horse power (import from china) manufactured from 2014-15.

ü 44 diesel electric locomotive
3000 horse power (import from China) were also manufactured during 2003-08.

ü 25 diesel electric locomotive of
2000 horse power (import from China) were manufactured from 2003-08.

ü 21 diesel electric locomotive of
2000-2400 horse power (import from German) were rehabilitated during 2001-03.

ü 30 diesel electric locomotive of
3000 horse power (import from German) were manufactured during 1999-2001.

ü 5 diesel electric locomotive of
2000 horse Power (import from German) were rehabilitated from 1997-98.

ü Total 23 diesel electric
locomotive (2000 Horse Power import Hitachi) were manufactured from 1993-97.

Projects:

Pakistan
Locomotive Factory first commissioned on Jan 1993. Very first locomotive “which
were rolled out from factory” on 2nd December 1993. 102 locomotives
manufactured in Pakistan locomotive factory from 1993-2007. After that no more
ne locomotive were made in factory and rehabilitation work started for Pakistan
railway. total 26 locomotives were rehabilitated in factory from 2008-08. 478
no of employees against sanction strength of 1530 as per PC-1. 1422 millions foreign
exchange saved by the factory since commissioned.

Pakistan
Locomotive Factory’s production capacity is 25 locomotive per year on single
Shift Basis. They can increase the production capacity by starting double
shift. 1500 workers are doing their jobs in one shift then factory able to
complete production capacity of locomotives which is 25 locomotive per year.

Total
Area Of factory is 257 Acres in which Factory area is 100 Acres and colony area
is 157 Acres. And covered area is 11 Acres.

Total
cost of Pakistan Locomotive Factory was 2284 Millions in which the Foreign exchange
amount was1496 Millions and local funds amount was 788 Millions.

      Pakistan Locomotive Factory, is a
manufacturer of locomotives for Pakistan Railways, located in Risalpur, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The company was established in 1993. A total of 2130
coaches have been manufactured at Carriage Factory Islamabad since 1971. The
factory has also rehabilitated (overhauled) 1039 coaches up to 30 June 2015.

Introduction:

Drug as Colombia, Bolivia and Peru are the

Drug cartels which are
criminal organizations that supply drug trafficking operations are many in
South America. Latin Americas geographic zone is key for drug production and
trafficking. Countries such as Colombia, Bolivia and Peru are the world’s main
cocaine producers. Cartels such as the Santa Cruz cartel in Bolivia have been
extremely involved in the cocaine production that made Bolivia one of the main
producers. Mexico and the Caribbean cartels are principal members for the
transportation of drugs into United States and Europe.  One the most famous drug cartels known
throughout the world in the past is the Medellin cartel which was founded in
Medellin, Columbia by Pablo Escobar in 1976. The cartel operated throughout
1970s to 1980s in Latin America, United States, Canada and Europe. The Medellin
cartel smuggled tons of cocaine weekly into different countries all over the
world making $60-$100 Million daily as profit. It supplied at least 96% of the
united states cocaine market and 90% of the global. The Sinaloa Cartel is
another international Drug Cartel, it was established in 1989 in Mexico and is
still operating currently it is headed by Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman. The drug
cartels in Latin America that are major are the Mexican and Colombian cartels
that make a total of $18 to $39bn in drug missions per year. The Mexican cartel
currently is the largest and greatest crime organization threat to the United
States. The drug cartels themselves have different levels within the structure
of the organization, consisting of falcons, hitmen, lieutenants and drug lords.
The United States and the Latin America drug control have been trying to
abolish the drug cartels in Latin America. The U.S congress supported and
funded the Central American Regional Security Initiative with $800 million.  The U.S has also been funding Plan Colombia
which aims to eliminate illegal production in the country, the Guatemalan
authorities worked with the United Sates to interfere on the South American
cocaine routes used by the drug cartels which use Guatemala as a location. Some
Latin American and Caribbean countries have been involved with drug cartels and
the illegal drug trade, the president of Panama Manuel Noriega was a long-term
drug trafficker, the drugs brought some governments some power for instance in
Bolivia. Drug cartels often have issues with rival drug cartels either in the
same country or other cartels abroad. The Sinaloa cartel which is the most
powerful cartel currently is facing intense competition with its former armed
wing the Jalisco New Generation cartel. The Jalisco cartel was founded in 2010
but then expanded rapidly and aggressively across Mexico and is going against
the Sinaloa cartel. Even though the members of the drug cartels are local
citizens themselves other citizens that are not involved in the cartels but
have good connections and relations feel more protected by the cartels rather
than the state. Drug cartels threaten the rule of law by offering an organized
alternative to the states monopoly on the use of force to govern people, the
cartels use their power in playing roles states should be playing. The drug
cartel members also find ways to have protection from corrupt government
officials and some militia who get bribed by the money the cartel members offer
them in exchange to protection and a helping hand in their drug trafficking
missions. The United nation does have a branch for drugs and crime known as the
UNODC which passed several resolutions regarding drugs. The issue of drug
cartels in Latin America is large and possible solutions and improvements about
this issue could be found hopefully during this conference. 

Operations It has facilitated the concept of the

Operations Management – Strategic Analysis

As a globally competitive corporation, Nike has
implemented the concept of operations management in its operating process. It
has facilitated the concept of the Lean Six Sigma, which helps focus on
lead-time reduction to increase customer satisfaction and market share. In its manufacturing
operations, Nike has gained competitive advantages from Kaizen breakthrough,
with the layout redesign for lean, just-in-time (JIT) system, total productive
maintenance and six sigma management.

Strategy

Companies might vary
their business procedures in accordance with their alternatives and solutions to
counter problems. Therefore, certain measurement criteria is made which reflect
the most successful solutions.

Nike specializes in a
very labor intensive area i.e manufacturing of sports shoes which requires many
detailed measurements in production, evaluation and performance of the product.
The increasing strictness in quality control management and along with customer
demand for affordable goods has suddenly put Nike in a precarious situation. The
question arises that, “how high quality products can be produced under many measurements
at a price that customers are willing to pay for?” This can be accomplished by
application of transformation procedure, which converts batch manufacturing to
lean manufacturing at a strategic level.

Nike concerns and care
for what its target customers look for and plan on producing results that
exceed customer expectations and regulatory requirements by increasing productivity
for a better process.

Product

Nike is known for its technologically advanced products and processes. Nike
has continuously improved its processes throughout the years by cross-functional
cooperation. In 1985, inventories had fallen significantly to less than 10
million pairs of shoes from a peak of 22 million in late 1983. Profit margins
rose in the second fiscal quarter from 25% to 33% a year earlier. During that
period, costs as a percentage of revenue fell for the company, marking its significant
product growth.

Nike consumers are willing to pay premiums for perceived values, but value
can go beyond plain price and quality. The successful image of Nike becomes the
ultimate high-volume, low cost manufacturing. In the past, Nike had been
challenged by boycotting of goods, due to accusations that Nike has outsourced
and exploited developing nations and their workforce. However, Nike has currently
leveraged their low cost manufacturing environment and implemented operations
management strategies to its manufacturing systems to keep their strategic
position in the market.

 

Capacity

Volume measurement can be a relevant allocator for determining types of
physical processes, machinery and equipment that goes in the production floor.
Volume can show how far equipments and machinery requirements for the operating
procedures have been utilized. This allocation makes it easier to cope with
process changeovers at Nike.

The location of the production facility is impacted on treatment
facilities, which often happen in areas where air pollution might not be a
problem. However, the environment limitation also determines the quantity at
which a facility can produce, and become independent of capacity or demand.
These problems impact on production, which will happen long after manufacturing
facilities are established and put into operation.

Supply Chain Management

Nike is executing a long-term sourcing strategy and is streamlining its overall
supply chain operations. Nike’s supply chain flow is shown in figure (a) below:

Figure (a): Nike’s Supply Chain

 In 2007, Nike began to assess the
contract manufacturing base and undertaking a long term strategy in order to:

·       Streamline supply chain to
focus on a number of contractors for manufacturing

·       Build a strong and
sustainable sourcing base for greater operational efficiencies and future growth

·       Identify subcontractors
that are able to deliver standard deliverables with the best performance rate

·       Align subcontractors in
terms with Nike’s corporate responsibility principles.

Manufacturing Index (MI)

Nike has shifted from a risk-reduction focus to a time intensive strategy
which gives attention to strengthening supply chain relationships with
factories operating at optimal performance levels.

A manufacturing index (MI) was implemented in 2012 which integrates scores
from key performance areas into a single scoreboard rating which rates
factories according to Gold, Silver, Bronze, Yellow or Red. Contract manufacturers
that are able to consistently exceed Nike requirements in the weighted areas of
costs, quality, delivery and sustainability showing steady performance
leadership in the industry will achieve a silver rating in the MI. Contract manufacturers
that go beyond industry and demonstrate innovation and optimal performance
within the broader manufacturing landscape get the gold rating.

Minimally, Bronze rating is expected to be achieved and sustained, indicating
that factories can meet their baseline standards and can self-govern with their
integrated systems.

Nike offers
incentives and sanctions to the contract manufacturers based on these MI
ratings.

We life, and have an ever increasing role

We live in an era when technology and computers have revolutionised every aspect of our life, and have an ever increasing role to play in human lives. I am thrilled at the possibility of committing my career to such a dynamic and diverse field. Ever since I was young, I have enjoyed experimenting with electronics and other household gadgets. During my early years of life, I have witnessed the advent of modern computers and smartphones and observed how computers have trickled down to almost every profession. I understood that the computer age had just started, and there was a huge potential in this field. Therefore, Computer Science was an obvious choice as my university major, and now, it is my aim to continue my education in a more competitive, elite, and international environment.Studying overseas in Canada will not only provide me with a great range of professional skills but also a much broader, more international perspective. Moreover, being multicultural Canada would feel like home. Due to these reasons, I am deeply interested in pursuing my graduate degree from Canada. I am attracted to the prestigious education system of Canada which has produced global and skilled leaders who are prepared for future. I have explored various possible options to choose an apt area of study and after proper and thorough research I have decided to study the program Professional Master of Science in Big Data offered by Simon Fraser University. I understand that Big Data is the future, and there is are huge job opportunities for Analytics Professionals. The program will provide me a very deep and clear understanding of each and every emerging aspect of Big Data.My academic experience thus far has provided me with practical knowledge and skills that will be extremely useful when studying abroad at the graduate level. I believe that keeping an explorative attitude and curious mind is very important for a constant learning process. Computer programming was introduced early on in my school curriculum, and I quickly developed a liking for it because of a very logical approach when tackling a problem. In Grade 10, I excelled in courses like Computer Applications, English and Science which encouraged me to opt for three major subjects – Computer Science, English, and Science for my Grade 12. After completing my Grade 12, I cleared All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE), the entrance examination for Engineering, and got admitted to Bachelor of Technology Computer Science Engineering at Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus which is one of the finest institutes in India.I completed my bachelor degree in First Division. During the undergraduate study, I studied courses like Theory of Computer Science, Data Structure, Microprocessor based Design and Computer Organization, Systems Programming, Software Engineering, Database Management System, Operating Systems and Computer Networks along with computer languages like C, C++, Core and Advanced Java. These courses helped me gain a strong background in the fundamentals of Computer Science. These were aptly complemented by the laboratory courses. The four-year curriculum exposed me to the entire spectrum of computer courses thus laying a strong foundation for both my Hardware and Software Fundamentals. The challenging assignments that were part of the laboratory courses helped me to develop the required technical and programming skills. I have developed many Software programs in C, C++, and Java. My final year project was EVLG which was implemented using Core Java, Servlets, JSP, Enterprise Java Beans, and SQL. Election Voter List Generator (EVLG) is basically designed and developed for the Election Department to generate a list of eligible voters for the upcoming elections. It also included management of Voter IDs (adding, removing and editing Voters).During the final year of my bachelor degree, I got placed in Infosys Limited, Bangalore. To gain a better understanding and hands-on experience, I joined Infosys Limited as a System Engineer. The company also provided me the last semester Industrial Training where I was trained in Python, Java, and SQL. I am working for Infosys since July 2016, and I currently work in the networking domain. Over the span of my 1.5 years, I have realized that constant reskilling and an appetite for learning is necessary to thrive in IT industry. During this work experience, I have learned to have a good hold on development of end to end Perl based and front-end applications. In this practical learning phase, I worked on three projects which include- Business Initiative (BI) where I helped develop Migration Tool for service migration from legacy Cisco routers to newer ASR1K/ASR9K devices, Production Support and Management (PSNM) where I work on IT Asset Management (ITAM) tool for inventory functions to support lifecycle management and Bridger Tool to verify identity of the customers of Amazon US. I have chosen Simon Fraser University for many reasons. It is one of the most reputed universities in Canada. The engineering expertise and facilities available at the university are truly appreciable. I am positive, the quality education and exemplary counsel will mold me into a better human being and an exceptional professional. I have concluded that with all excellent facilities and highly knowledgeable and experienced faculty, Simon Fraser University will provide a perfect environment for quality education. The education at Simon Fraser University will give me the training and the stature to work with global clients. I look forward to being an active contributing member of the student community at your University.

Türk Biletleme sistemi Projesi (ETS) ile ak?ll? telefon

Türk mühendislerinin üzerinde çal??t??? ak?ll? ula??m altyap?s?
Elektronik Biletleme sistemi Projesi (ETS) ile ak?ll? telefon kullan?c?
sahipleri turnike s?ras? beklemeyecek.

Türk mühendislerinin üzerinde çal??t??? yeni sistem Elektronik Biletleme
Sistemi Projesi özellikle i?e gidi? geli? saatlerinde turnikede beklemek
zorunda kalan vatanda?lar için zaman tasarrufu aç?s?ndan büyük yarar sa?layacak
nitelikte. Ak?ll? ula??m projesi olarak adland?r?lan çal??ma ile ak?ll? cep
telefonu kullanan vatanda?lar turnike s?ras? beklemeyecek.

Düzenledi?i bas?n toplant?s?nda uygulaman?n faaliyete geçmesi için
önlerinde bir engel olmad???n? söyleyen veren Elektronet A? Yönetim Kurulu
Ba?kan? Mehmet Kaptana 2015 y?l?nda ba?lad?klar? bu projenin 2018 y?l? sonunda
hayata geçirilmesi ile birlikte geçi? kontrol, elektronik ücret tahsilat
sistemi, yüz tan?ma sistemi, büyük veri yönetimi gibi unsurlar?nda projenin
içinde oldu?unu belirtti.

P?LOT UYGULAMA NEREDE YAPILACAK?

Kaptana, “Pilot uygulama ?stanbul’da yap?lacak ve ba?lang?ç olarak
Fransa, ?sveç ve Romanya’da hayata geçmesi planlan?yor. Avrupa Birli?i toplu
ta??ma standartlar? deste?i alacak olan projemizin 2025 y?l? sonuna kadar
merkez Avrupa’n?n tamam?nda uygulanabilece?ini tahmin ediyoruz.” dedi.

AKILLI CEP TELEFONLARI DEVREYE G?RECEK

Kaptana’n?n bas?n toplant?s?nda verdi?i bilgilere göre ETS sistemi
metrobüs, otobüs ve vapur gibi toplu ta??ma araçlar?na binen vatanda?lar?n
hepsi turnike s?ras? beklemeden kullanabilecek.

ETS sistemini kullanan yolcular uygulamay? cep telefonuna indirerek
mobil uygulama üzerinden kullanabilecek. ?ndirdikleri mobil uygulama üzerinden
an?nda yükleme yap?labilecek.

TURN?KELERDEN OTOMAT?K GEÇ??

Turnikelerden geçi? esnas?nda bekleme sorunu ya?anmayacak yolcular cep
telefon yada ula??m kart?n? okutmak zorunda kalmayacak sistem otomatik olarak
alg?layacak.

????? ???? “?????????????????????????????????????????????????”???????·????David Cameron????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????FDA??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Joseph?Len?Paul?2017?4????????????????????????????????????????” ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Melanie Wall????????????????????????????????????????????2008??2008????????????????????????12?17????????????????????????????????45.2??????????30???22.9?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????FDA??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Joseph?Len?Paul?2017?4????????????????????????????????????????” ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Melanie

????? ???? “?????????????????????????????????????????????????”???????·????David Cameron????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????FDA??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Joseph?Len?Paul?2017?4????????????????????????????????????????” ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Melanie Wall????????????????????????????????????????????2008??2008????????????????????????12?17????????????????????????????????45.2??????????30???22.9?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????FDA??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Joseph?Len?Paul?2017?4????????????????????????????????????????” ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Melanie Wall????????????????????????????????????????????2008??2008????????????????????????12?17????????????????????????????????45.2??????????22.9??????30????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”??1970???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”??2011????????????????????????” 2011???650?12???????????????????420??63.8???????Joseph Clare?Len Garis?Paul Maxim?2016??????????????????????????????????420??63.8???????Joseph Clare?Len Garis?Paul Maxim?2016??????????????????????????????????420??63.8???????Joseph Clare?Len Garis?Paul Maxim?2016????????????????????????????????”?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”?RR Noall?2017??????????????????????????????????????????????????” ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”??”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2006??2010????????????????”??”?????????????????????”? Jeffrey I. Hunt?MD 2016??????????????????????????????????????????”??”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2006??2010????????????????”??”?????????????????????”? Jeffrey I. Hunt?MD 2016??????????????????????????????????????????”??”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2006??2010????????????????”??”?????????????????????”? Jeffrey I. Hunt?MD 2016?”??”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2006??2010????????????????”??”?????????????????????”? Jeffrey I. Hunt?MD 2016?”??”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2006??2010????????????????”??”?????????????????????”? Jeffrey I. Hunt?MD 2016???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????3??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? Joseph?Len?Paul?2017?April??????????????????????????????????????http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezpxy.fanshawec.ca ???H.?2014?1?21???????????????????https://townhall.com/columnists/johnhawkins/2014/01/21/5-reasons-marijuana-should-remain-illegal-n1782086 Hasna?S.?2016?10?27?????????????????????http://www.lawnow.org/legalizing-marijuana-use-in-canada-some-concerns/ RR Noall?2017?6?15???????????Hallucinate???https://herb.co/2017/06/15/hallucinate-cannabis/ Jeffrey I. Hunt??????2016?10???DEA????????????????????????????????????????http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezpxy.fanshawec.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/

Chapter 14: A Funny Kind of Peace (pages 165 to 175)- This chapter focuses on how the Taliban and the provincial government agree to a peace treaty allowing girls under the age of ten to go to school. In this chapter Malala informs us that her friends are eleven, but claim to be ten to continue their schooling. Militant Sufi Muhammad gives the trust of ceasing the Taliban, but no peace occurs.Chapter 15: Leaving the Valley (pages 176 to 188)- In this chapter Malala and her family are told to leave their home- Swat Valley and she has to leave all of her books and belonging behind, not knowing when she will return. The whole family not including her father go to live in her uncle’s house where Malala goes to school with her cousin.Chapter 16: The Valley of Sorrows (pages 189 to 204)- In this chapter Malala and her family return back home to Swat Valley after three months as an IDP (Internally Displaced Persons). The Prime Minister declared that the Taliban had moved out, and Malala flees to Islamabad with her school to learn about politics and deliver speeches. In this chapter, Malala informs us that she turns thirteen on July, 2010.Chapter 17: Praying to Be Tall (pages 205 to 217)- In this chapter Osama bin Laden was taken and killed by American forces.  Malala earns half a million rupees from winning awards given to her by the prime minister and other foreign ministers/ governments which she gives to charity.Chapter 18: The Women and the Sea (pages 218 to 226)- In this chapter Malala and her father flee to Karachi to do more speeches and Malala starts to receive death threats.Chapter 19: A Private Talibization(pages 227 to 235)- This chapter takes place on July 12, and Malala turns fourteen. She informs us that her school is threatened and bad rumors are scattered about the school and its teachings. On August 3rd, Malala’s father’s friend, Zahid Khan is shot, and the family fears that their father is next, but he continues to talk about education, politics, and rights.