Shakespeare’s of his king, his companions, and his

Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, is a story of the human instinct and of the decisions each individual needs to make between the evil and the integrity inside themselves. In the play, there are two primary characters with the characteristics of strength and high accomplishment that heroes have. Macbeth is the tragic hero of the story, an admirable man brought down by his flaws, and Macduff is the avenging hero, a wronged person who battles for a privilege and worthy motivation. Both of these men live comparable lives until a specific point where each chooses whether they will pick an existence of self-centeredness or of respect. While Macbeth is driven towards madness and to submitting violence through his terrible acts of uncontrollable ambition, Macduff lacks such a defect and stays uncorrupted and heroic throughout the play. As Macbeth seeks to gain power and prestige to the disadvantage of the lives of his king, his companions, and his countrymen, Macduff meanwhile bears great personal loss in his efforts to stop Macbeth’s oppressive control and to reestablish equity and freedom to Scotland.  Throughout the tragic events of Macbeth, Macduff fills in as a heroic figure through his exhibits of intelligence, loyalty and righteousness.  Macduff’s predominance is negligible in the beginning of the play; however, his intelligence can first be noted in his activities that take after King Duncan’s demise. While numerous Scottish nobles get ready to welcome Macbeth to the position of authority and acknowledge him as their king, Macduff demonstrates his uncertainty of the story surrounding Duncan’s demise. In spite of the fact that Macduff at first acknowledges the judgment that Malcolm and Donalbain are the most likely suspects in the murder of their father, he does as such reluctantly and simply because the proof focuses to them given that they have fled the scene. When asked whether he will go to Macbeth’s inaugural ceremonies, Macduff responds, “No, cousin, I’ll to Fife” (Shakespeare II.iv.36). Macduff is less persuaded than the others that the mystery of the king’s murder has been settled, and he wisely separates himself from Macbeth, in whose home the murder happened, as opposed to just acknowledge Macbeth as his new king. Later when the news spreads that Banquo too has been killed in Macbeth’s castle, Macduff is again the first to act, as noted when Lennox states, “Thither Macduff is gone, to pray the holy king, upon his aid to wake Northumberland and warlike Siward” ( Macduff exhibits his intelligence in connecting Macbeth to the killings of King Duncan and Banquo before some other nobles come to such an acknowledgment. Macduff’s intelligence and ability to follow up on what information he has assembled demonstrates his bravery and help to save Scotland from destruction. Contrarily, Macbeth  In all of Macduff’s activities, he stays loyal to his nation and acts exclusively in light of a legitimate concern for Scotland. At the point when Macduff goes to England to raise an armed force against Macbeth, he must leave his family behind. Macduff has chosen to serve the political cause hence the greater part of his tension about forsaking his family became suppressed. In spite of the fact that a loving family­ man with commitment towards his children and his wife, Macduff’s other loyalties are more grounded. Macduff selflessly puts his nation before those he loves, leaving his family defenseless against any harm from Macbeth with the goal that he may raise an armed force to overcome him and end the oppression that harms his nation. It turns out to be evident that Macduff is earnest in his demonstrations of loyalty when he is tested by the young Malcolm, who will acquire the thorn if Macduff prevails with regards to dethroning Macbeth. After Malcolm proudly expresses his evil nature in his “voluptuousness” (VI.iii.61), his “stanchless avarice” (VI.iii.78), and his total carelessness for ethics, Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland goes unbroken in his reaction to Malcolm, who inquires as to whether he is fit to govern. Macduff states, “Fit to govern? No, not to live. O nation miserable! …When shalt thou see thy wholesome days again… ” (VI.iii.102-105). Macduff’s show of loyalty towards his nation over its potential ruler serves to demonstrate to Malcolm his loyal nature and absence of selfish intentions. Malcolm agrees to lead the army against Macbeth in a move that ultimately saves Scotland. In contrast, Macbeth  In all occasions of the play, Macduff acts to battle oppression and all that is evil, making him a truly righteous character. From serving King Duncan to securing Scotland and taking the thorn back from Macbeth, Macduff acts in service of what is ethically just and does not boast in his deeds or in any way act for himself. In the wake of discovering that his family has died at the command of Macbeth, Macduff cries for them and expresses first his pain and pain, demonstrating his human side, yet he at that point acknowledges what has happened and starts to plan his next activity. Realizing that he serves nobody by weeping over his misfortune or boasting about how he will avenge his family, Macduff simply says, “Bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself, within my sword’s length set him; if he ‘scape, heaven forgive him too” (VI.iii.233-235). Macduff believes that it is correct and just to kill Macbeth, not just for what the he has done to his family, however for how he has conveyed torment and pain to a whole country. In expressing his expectation that Macbeth’s crimes be forgiven if he fails to kill him, Macduff additionally reflects hi righteous, relatively biblical qualities in his ability to not hold resentment against the man who has killed his family. At last, Macduff appears to be bound to kill Macbeth. Not only do the witches’ predictions point to Macduff as the person who has the ability to dethrone Macbeth, but also Shakespeare likewise utilizes a typical supernatural theme to depict Macduff as a character of a higher power who appears the only one fit to bring down a powerful military ruler as Macbeth. At the point when Macduff rises up out of fight victorious in the last scene and holds Macbeth’s disjoined head, the picture made is one of good at last prevailing over evil. On the other hand,  Despite the occasions and fortunes surrounding Macduff’s character in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth, he fills in as a courageous figure for his characteristics of intelligence, loyalty, and righteousness. As the first to realize the mystery and guilt encompassing Macbeth and the murders that appear to line his way on his rise to control, Macduff shows a concern and knowledge that Macbeth appears to lack. Utilizing his intelligence for the benefit of his nation, Macduff hesitates to get opportunities for personal gain and acts simply in light of a legitimate concern for his country, to which he shows supreme loyalty. This loyalty runs so deep down in Macduff that not even the murder of his family can demoralize him on his righteous mission to vanquish from the Scottish throne the evil that has surpassed it. In his heroic qualities, Macduff develops as the real hero of Macbeth significantly more so than the main character, Macbeth, whose flaw of ambition drives him to the point of being a torment upon the country he so desires to rule. In the words of politician Edmund Burke, “All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing.” Macduff’s role as a good and decent man in Macbeth isn’t just to achieve equity to a mistreated country. Rather, his character reminds that justice is impossible without the mindfulness and activities of intelligent, ethical men and women who loyally put in all their efforts to maintain what is righteous, something that Macbeth didn’t get it. 

Therefore, the University, he dresses in formal attire

in light of this assumption, Dough Boy
conforms to the social standards of his community, which within the context of
the ‘hood’, could lead to prestige, security, and social status.

            Theorists within the Chicago School also bring about the Differential Association Theory and the Social Learning Theory.  These theories are interrelated and can help to
better understand the relationship between Ricky,
Doughboy, and Tre.  To illustrate, Ricky will be further discussed as he seems to best illustrate these theories.  Even though Ricky and Doughboy are brothers,
they display very distinct personality traits. Ricky is extremely talented and is offered a University football scholarship,
while Dougboy is the thug of the
group. Since Ricky is offered a
scholarship, he understands that he must conform to new higher standards of
conduct and behaviour.  For example, when
Ricky meets with the representative
for the University, he dresses in formal attire and is able to present himself
respectfully. Even though this behaviour is out of
his norm, Ricky understands that he needs to adopt new behaviours that are not
as familiar to him. This can be referred to as behaviour
modification.  Further, Ricky understands and accepts that he
must stay out of trouble and study for his SAT’s which
is also out of his cultural norm and which Furious believes to be  “culturally biased” (Singleton, 1991). 

            Next, it
is clear that Ricky’s character is greatly
influenced by his social surrounding.  His relationship with Tre and Furious has a significant
impact on his character and well-being, whereby together Tre and Ricky set goals
for the future and plan on opening a business together.  However, when Ricky is with his brother Doughboy
he engages in violent confrontations, as is seen when they get involved in a
shooting with a rival gang.  This illustrates that the criminal behaviour is

CNN or rats that have the yersinia pestis

CNN is a well known reliable news source and newspaper, so that is why I chose to do this research through this site. Meera Senthilingam is a CNN producer who focuses on health and wellness. Sethilingham has written many articles relating health and diseases around the world. She has a master’s degree in science and communication from Imperial College London and in the control of infectious diseases from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Since this article is about the bubonic plague, she would be a reliable researcher and source of evidence for this topic. Because of the authorship and known trust for this news source, this article is a reliable source of evidence.    The bubonic plague, plague, or black death is a potentially deadly and rare bacterial infection, spread by fleas or rats that have the yersinia pestis bacteria. Without treatment (which obviously wasn’t evident in many cases), the Bubonic Plague takes a life in a matter of days. Swollen lymph nodes, fever, chills, vomiting, headaches and muscle aches are common symptoms along with painful, large boils in areas such as the armpit. The plague is extremely contagious and can be transmitted through either a bite of an infected animal (flea or rat) or through the air of an infected person. There have been three pandemics of the black death throughout the world during various time periods. The first pandemic was in the Eastern Roman Empire after the emperor, Justinian was infected with the plague but had extensive treatment and survived. What came to be known as the Plague of Justinian killed between 25-50 million people over two centuries. The second appearance of the plague was in the late middle ages, and killed between 75-200 million people. The final appearance of the plague was concentration in Southwest China until it was found in San Francisco, Oregan, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Zambia, India, Peru, China, Madagascar, Republic of Congo, and other places had infected people. Luckily today and in the third pandemic, many people were able to be saved, for medicines have been found to treat the bubonic plague. But, in Madagascar, there is a slight, recurring appearance of the plague, revealing unsanitary conditions that are frightening to even imagine.In class, we studied the second pandemic of the bubonic plague. Although this epidemic was much more deadly because the treatment was unknown, this same infection was found in Madagascar, in present day (along with another type of the plague). The sanitary conditions in Madagascar, like those in the Late Middle Ages are not prestige and are another factor that is leading to the spread of the plague; both places, although the plague originated from a different place, was able to thrive because of the poor medical and living conditions. Like what we studied, the same disease and symptoms are present in Madagascar but what is different is the amount of people who have died and now, there is a treatment. The plague was a deadly disease that infected and killed many people in the Late Middle Ages and is unfortunately, still around today.

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KEY reinvented the connector to meet the changing


Current Situation:

Almost every component of mobile and
computing devices has seen major innovation over the past decades. Mechanical
connectors have not. As devices decrease in size and data rates increase,
product designs continue to suffer from inherent limitations posed by
mechanical connectors:

• Reliability due to the fragility of
mechanical connectors
• EMI/RFI emitted from the metal inside a connector as well as a cable,
especially at higher data rates; and
• Unsightly holes resulting from the need for a receptacle.

Wireless communications eliminated
many of those connector design issues, but added new ones like cost, antenna
design complexity, major power consumption and customer frustration with slow,
shared wireless networks, managing passwords and pairing issues.


Keyssa reinvented the connector to
meet the changing needs of both consumers and manufacturers. Consumers bemoan
the clutter of cables and adapters required to connect devices and yearn for
sleek, elegant devices that can withstand water, dirt and everyday wear and
tear. Manufacturers are looking for ways to minimize the size of devices yet
provide the performance their customers expect. Kiss Connectors are a
completely new approach to connectors, based on solid-state technology and
operating in the super-fast 60Ghz spectrum. They sit under the surface of a
device skin, immune to wear and tear, invisible and eliminate the need for a
cable. Simply “kiss” two devices by touching the devices, and data is
transferred at up to 6Gbps.

Kiss Connector Features:

• Superior Speeds: data can be
transferred at up to 6Gbps – that’s a 1GB movie in as little as two seconds.
• Protocol-agnostic: supports standard protocols like USB 3.0, DisplayPort
HBR2, and SATA II with no programming overhead or software drivers required.
• Power-friendly: power consumption with Kiss Connectors is orders of magnitude
lower than wireless solutions and co-exists with wireless power standards.
• Secure: Kiss Connectors are a point-to-point connection – data travels
securely from one device to another.
• Simple: user experience is native to real-life experience of just a kiss –
place two devices in close proximity to one another and they will connect and
disconnect automatically..



Innovative Design

 The typical
mechanical connector needed to move data from one device to another takes up
significant space inside mobile and computing devices and they also need to be
placed at the outer edge of any device, in order to create a port or contact
surface. What sets Kiss Connectivity apart is the design innovation it enables
by allowing product designers to embed a Keyssa connector inside their product,
on any surface, and not just along the outer edges. By eliminating unsightly
holes in otherwise beautiful products, Kiss Connectivity ushers in a new age in
product innovation.


 Almost every
part and component of mobile and computing devices has seen major innovation
over the past decades, except for the metal connector. Many of today’s
connector types are too large for modern mobile and computing devices, such as
smartphones. With data usage increasing, it becomes a challenge to make
mechanical connectors in an acceptable form factor and still maintain signal
integrity. Kiss Connectivity reinvents the connector by creating a tiny
solid-state coffee bean-sized connector that can be embedded anywhere along the
surface of a device. Kiss Connectivity is no longer visible as the connection
is made by an Extremely High Frequency (EHF) signal over a very short distance.

 Mechanical Reliability

Connectivity is a solid-state solution which eliminates the metal contacts
which are prone to wear-and-tear from repeated consumers’ physical connecting
and disconnecting traditional connectors. With Kiss Connectivity, no physical
interconnection is required to transfer data, resulting in near-zero wear,
near-zero potential for corrosion, and near-zero sensitivity to vibration.
Unlike a metal connector with precise pin to pin alignment, Kiss Connectivity
does not need to be perfectly aligned, or inserted carefully in order to make a

Radio Frequency Interference

 In an attempt
to meet the ever-increasing market demand to move more data more quickly, some
smartphone manufacturers have incorporated USB 3.0 in their products. However,
this protocol is often disabled due to potential interference between the USB
3.0 and the 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. The USB 3.0 connector radiates within the
802.11 frequency band. .By replacing the metal USB connector with a contactless
interface, Kiss Connectivity removes this potential interference while enabling
full USB 3.0 protocol speeds to be achieved.

 ESD Considerations

 Due to the
contactless nature of Kiss Connectivity, the connection has inherently high
isolation properties and potential electrostatic discharge (ESD) issues are
mitigated due to the elimination of exposed pins in metal connectors. In
addition, Kiss Connectivity can be electrically isolated in plastic or other
non-conductive materials to further mitigate ESD.

Cost Efficient

connectors inherently have extra fabrication and manufacturing costs. For
example, the physical limitations of placing connectors along the outer edges
of a device requires machining chassis with tight tolerance for connector



Wireless communications have many shortcomings,
including limited data security, low data rates, unreliable connections, shared
bandwidth amongst users, difficult setup, high power and potential high cost of
transferring data over a wireless network. Kiss Connectivity addresses each of
these shortcomings, by enabling a simple, private, secure, and high -performance
data connection between two devices. With Kiss Connectivity, users can bypass
the cellular networks for highspeed, localized data transfers that can be up to
95% faster than wireless networks.

 Secure Point-to-Point Data Connection

wireless networks provide public, multi-point connections that are not
necessarily the most secure. Kiss Connectivity provides a private
point-to-point connection. Due to the low radiated power and limited range of
the transmission, the links are nearly impossible to tap. This ensures secure
and reliable high-speed data transfers between a pair of devices in close

 Ease of Use

Connectivity allows users to transfer data much more quickly and easily than
wireless networks. Kiss Connectivity does not require any setup in order to
perform a data transfer. Simply place the two devices together, and initiate
the transfer of selected data. Kiss Connectivity, using the USB 3.0 protocol,
can transfer a 1 GByte movie in 2 seconds.

Power Reduction

Connectivity facilitates high-speed data transfers between devices. Since the
overall data transmission time is dramatically reduced versus existing
technologies, battery consumption is also reduced. Kiss Connectivity data
transfers can occur nearly instantaneously while using a minimal amount of

Cost of Data Transfer

 When traveling,
international cellular data plans can be extremely expensive. Data plans in
developing countries are not affordable for a lot of people. With Kiss
Connectivity, users can use local data transfers between devices and avoid
expensive costs related to cellular data transfers


Mobile Device to Mobile

In the last few years, mobile devices have become
mobile computing centers, helping us to manage everything in our daily lives
such as business and personal communications, entertainment, banking and
appointments. Kiss Connectivity allows for the quick and easy transfer of
information between mobile devices, including movies, photos, music, sales
presentations, and more. The Kiss Connectivity solution has significant
benefits for personal storage and data movement between devices such as
smartphones, tablets, laptops. The increasing bandwidth requirements of the
typical user have rendered existing data transfer mechanisms inadequate, and
there is a need to be able to transfer data quickly and easily. For example,
video, audio, or other data can be transmitted between two cellular phones by
simply holding the phones back-to-back against one another (as illustrated
below). With Kiss Connectivity using USB 3.0 even an entire movie can be
transmitted in just a few seconds. This method allows almost instantaneous
transfer of data with little battery usage.



Fig.2 Mobile to Mobile with Kiss

Mobile Device to Docking
Station and Peripherals

 A mobile device
with Kiss Connectivity can connect to a docking station enabled with Kiss Connectivity.
That docking station can connect the mobile device to a wide range of legacy
peripherals like monitors, storage devices, keyboard and mouse via data
transfer protocols such as USB, DisplayPort, and Ethernet. Transfers are made
between the mobile device and the docking station, and then routed to the
appropriate peripheral. Currently the most common way to connect a tablet
computer to a keyboard is through a metal connector or wireless connection.
Both of these transfer methods have limitations, namely form factor and data
rate. Kiss Connectivity allows data to be transferred between these devices
without the need for any type of metal or wireless connection. The data
transfer can be accomplished by simply placing the devices in close proximity
to one another. Tablet to Keyboard with Kiss Connectivity


 Mobile Device to 4K Display

Mobile and computing devices are getting lighter and
thinner, and at the same time displays are becoming increasingly larger and
with higher resolution. The best of both worlds is a mobile device which can
quickly and automatically connect to larger 4K displays. Kiss Connectivity lets
OEMs seamlessly and instantaneously connect their mobile devices to the newest
high resolution 4K displays. The consumer experience is both simple and
beautiful without unsightly metal connectors and the repetitive plugging /
unplugging that leads to breakage. Kiss Connectivity enables new user
experiences that are not only trouble-free but also have a modern clean look.


Mobile Device to 4K Display with Kiss Connectivity.


High-Speed Data Rates

Typical wireless networks provide
connections with inconsistent data transmission rates. The rate at which data
is transferred across current Wi-Fi or WiGig networks is proportional to the
number of users on the network and the environmental conditions of the network.
The more users connected, the slower the network. Kiss Connectivity provides a
private point-to-point data transmission of up to 6 Gbit/s depending on the
data transmission protocol implemented. This provides consistent high-speed
data transfers

between a pair of mated devices, regardless
of the number of other devices present in a given area

(such as airports, shopping malls). This is illustrated in Table 1.



Consistent Upload and
Download Data Rates

In the current transfer protocols listed in Table 2,
there is often a dramatic difference between upload and download rates. For
example, the effective transmission rate on Wi-Fi network for uploading data is
20 Mbit/s, and for downloading is 40 Mbit/s. With LTE cellular networks, the
upload rate is approximately 5 Mbit/s, and 20 Mbit/s for downloading. Kiss
Connectivity’s point-to-point data transmission rates are symmetric in either



 Year over year,
we have witnessed an increase in the number and variety of personal and
professional mobile and computing devices on the market. Additionally, the
differences between devices have become blurred, with laptops transforming into
tablets and tablets transforming into laptops. Tablets become phones and
smartphones become computers. Smartphones become cameras etc. We carry these
devices everywhere, and in fact, they have become an extension of ourselves. We
stuff them with content, from personal and professional data and media. That
content gets scattered in the cloud, trapped in our devices, and out of sync
among our devices. The need to easily connect and transfer data between these
devices has greatly increased over time, as has user requirements for faster
and more secure data transfers. With Kiss Connectivity, product designers and
customers are now freed from the frustrations of wired and wireless
communications. Kiss Connectivity is an elegant, power-efficient solution that
can meet the people’s desire for faster and more secure ways to transfer data
and video.

The impact on the liquidity and profitability. The

The Indian banking sector has been facing serious problems of raising Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)1. The thickening of NPAs has a direct impact on the profitability of financial institutions. There has hardly been any systematic evaluation of the best way of confronting the NPAs problem. There seems to be no concord in the proper policies to stick to in resolving this problem. NPAs reflects the performance of financial institutions. A high level of NPAs denotes a high probability of a large number of credit defaults that affect the profitability and net-worth of financial institutions and also scrape away the value of the asset2. NPAs posing threat on quality of asset also has a deleterious impact on the liquidity and profitability. The menace of NPAs is not only impacting the financial institutions but also the whole economy. Actually, a high level of NPAs in Indian banks is nothing but a display of the state of health of the industry and trade3. It is needful to reduce NPAs to improve the health of the financial system. An attempt is made by the researcher to understand NPA, the status and trend of NPAs in DFIs, The factors contributing to NPAs, reasons for high impact of NPAs on DFIs in India and recovery of NPAS through various channels.

1 Economic Survey 2016-17. “Chapter: 4 The Festering Twin Balance Sheet Problem” Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs, Economic Division (January 2017). p.82. Retrieved from on 7 May, 2017.

2 Mendes, A., Lodhi, G.S., (2006), “A Study of Non-Performing Assets of Public Banking Sectors with Special Reference to Pune District”, International Research Journal of Management Sociology & Humanities, Vol. 7 (8), pp.224-230. Retrieved from:


3 Singh, V.R., (March 2016), “A Study of Non-Performing Assets of Commercial Banks and It’s Recovery in India”, Annual Research Journal of SCMS, Pune, Vol.-4, pp. 110-125. Retrieved from:

1 their chance in dominating markets and providing

1 Introduction


As ICT is developing
rapidly, the sharing economy has been growing alongside. Especially the growth
of this economy within the travel industry is huge (1). As the definition of a
sharing economy in academic terms is still vacant, in this paper the sharing economy
refers to a digital platform where people acquire, deliver and share access to assets
and services (2). There is a lot of value created within this economy, this is
due to the fact that the basic idea of a sharing economy is sharing goods and
service with the entire population (3).

Digital platform companies (e.g., Zipcar, WeWork, Didi
Chuxing) see their chance in dominating markets and providing more services fitting
the needs of the customers, therefore the part of these companies within the
Sharing economy are getting more important (4). These companies set up people
to share a range of products and services.

have existed for centuries. Train platforms connect people with transportation;
malls connect customers to vendors (5). What is changed now is that the ICT
development allows these companies to gain success without owning anything. The
digital platforms are easily built and whereas it used to be a business-to-business
or a business-to-consumer relationship these new platforms allow a consumer-to-consumer
relationship (6). Study shows that this new consumer-to-consumer relationship
is often stimulated by the fact that it is cheaper, more convenient, and more sustainable
than the traditional relationships (7). The trust within these consumer-to-consumer
relationship is the main reason why these digital platform companies have such
success, it is a number one priority for consumers to feel secure when buying
products and services through online platforms (8). Although research has been
done to the trust within the ride-sharing industry in the western part of the
world, only little research has been done in the developing parts.

Therefore, the focus of
this paper will be Didi Chuxing, which is the biggest ride-sharing company in
China. The company was founded by Cheng Wei in 2012, and its business model is
based on providing transportation. With 450 million users across over 400
cities in China, Didi has the biggest market share in its industry (Crunchbase).
All services from Didi are offered through a digital platform (the Didi app)
and include on-demand taxi service, on-demand private car service and hitch-hiking.
The on-demand taxi service can be subdivided in different levels from budget to
luxury cars (Crunchbase). While focussing on Didi Chuxing, the main goal is
grasping to what extent trust is important for this ride-sharing company
operating in developing country China.   

To answer this question a
literature review will be used, the literature consists of previous research and
academic articles which gives us insight into the theoretical term trust, the
development of the sharing economy in China and how they both affect the company
Didi Chuxing. The research papers and articles have been retrieved through
online university library databases and books from the UVA library.

The paper is structured
as followed: section two starts with a theoretical framework existing of theory’s,
models, and previous research. In the third section discussion of the findings
and a hypothesis will be described. Section 4 is a conclusion of the paper.


2 Theoretical Framework




with other people whose minds cannot be read is difficult for the human being.
As human beings have an inborn need of wanting to understand everything, this in-ability
leaves them with a huge complexity (11). But as people need communication on a
day-to-day basis, trust is one of the factors that shrinks this in-ability and
makes us able to communicate with each other the way people do. Without thrust this
communication would not be sufficient and human beings would less likely
communicate. Therefore, it is a very important part in interaction, especially
interactions that are not regulated or governed (11).  

Trust can
broadly be defined as the confidence a person has in his or her most desired
expectations of the actions from others, based on foregoing communication. In
spite of the fact that another person’s previous behaviour cannot warrant the
behaviour will be exactly the same in the future, previous behaviour of a
person that has been correctly expected in the past increases trust (12). There
is however a difference between trust in general, referred to as natural propensity
trust, and trust in an online environment (17). According to research done by
Kiku Jones and Lori N.K. Leonard (18), natural propensity trust has no
connection with trust online. In other words, a consumer who trusts people a
lot in daily life does not have to be as trusting when making transactions
online.  Research
has shown that online purchases, according to consumers, are risky, therefore
trust plays a very important role in giving confidence to customers (9). The customer
is always left between the risks and the benefits when it comes to buying
online, the transaction will be done when the benefits of the product weigh up
against the risks of it. This framework complies with Lewin’s theory (10).


it comes to mobile services, trust has the same important factor as it has on the
internet. It is the confidence a user of the mobile service has in the safety
and privacy of their information (13). In other words, trust in mobile services
means using the service thinking it will be risk free, while there will be
advantages in the future. For the digital platform companies who provide these mobile
services, trust is hard to earn and easy to lose (14).  


Familiarity and reputation.

of the other factors that simplify the communication between people is familiarity.
Familiarity is a comprehension, often established on communications, events,
and the understanding of what, why, when and where other people do what they do
(11). Trust and familiarity are connected, but different. As trust focusses on
actions in the future, familiarity is based on focussing on these actions in
the present. For example, familiarity with Uber one of the largest digital
platform taxi hail service would be knowing how to order a taxi, choose between
different types of taxis, and eventually finding the taxi in real life. Familiarity
here is based on previous interactions with the app and therefore knowing how
to use it. Trust in Uber on the contrary, might imply providing credit card
information to pay while there is not a 100% confidence in that your credit
card information will be used appropriately in the future.

In an online digital platform contributing to the
sharing economy, reputation is an important part for success (15). The strength
of the relationship between the consumer and the digital platform indicates the
level of reputation the platform has (15). Whereas a platform with a weak
relationship a lower level of reputation can be expected and a strong
relationship a higher level of reputation. The trust in consumer to consumer
businesses is different from a business to consumer trust. The reputation of
the platform providing consumer to consumer business is very important in
positively influencing trust (16). A good reputation can be achieved by strong
relationships (15), but also an excellent perception of the platform influences
a reputation positively (16).



3.1 The sharing economy in China.

The sharing economy has become an alternative
provider of products and services who used to be provided only by established
companies (18). The sharing economy can be referred as an economic ecosystem
that developed through ITC technologies and is connecting individuals,
organizations, governments and others, in order to create value by sharing goods
and services.


economy has emerged as alternative suppliers of goods and services tradition?
ally provided by long-established industries 27. The sharing economy can be defined as a socio-economic ecosystem that
commonly uses information technologies to connect different
stakeholders-individuals, companies, governments, and others, in order to make
value by sharing their excess capacities for products and services 13. Moreover, Botsman and Rogers 5 indicated that sharing the economy
underlies the business model in the operation of collaborative consumption,
where people offer and share underutil? ized resources in creative, new ways.

economy activities fall into four broad categories: recirculation of goods,
increased utilization of durable assets, exchange of services, and sharing of
productive assets 22.










Child affect a child’s improvement and also scholarly

   Child rearing styles have been broadly characterized into three classifications,  authoritative, authoritarian and permissive as depicted by Baumrind. Child rearing styles can be characterized as an example of demeanors in how guardians interact with their children. These styles are varied by the level of nurturance, parental control, and level of responsiveness (Dwairy, 2004). Authoritative style displays abnormal amounts of interest, responsiveness, and nurturance;  authoritarian style shows elevated amounts of interest however low levels of responsiveness, permissive style shows low levels of interest yet high in responsiveness and nurturance (Dwairy, 2004). These child-rearing styles all have been proposed to significantly affect a child’s improvement and also scholarly accomplishment and mental prosperity. Youth raised by authoritative guardians have the most abnormal amounts of scholastic accomplishment, confidence, passionate change and prosperity as per Baumrind’s class of styles (Dwairy, 2004). In any case, these three classifications depend on Western examples and have been said to depict child-rearing styles chiefly in the West and question its restrictions in portraying child rearing crosswise over societies, as each style’s characterizing examples may have distinctive implications crosswise over societies. 
Authoritative child rearing among European is related more grounded with high scholastic accomplishment when contrasted with the Chinese, as the meaning of authoritative child rearing is more in the lines of what Westerners accept is the ideal approach to raise a very much adjusted and sound child (Li, Costanzo and Putallaz, 2010). The European members likewise announced more elevated amounts of self-improvement objectives from their mothers and authoritative child rearing was emphatically connected with members’ social enthusiastic change (Li, Costanzo and Putallaz, 2010). In any case, authoritarian child rearing was adversely corresponded with European members’ scholastic self-adequacy and enthusiastic alteration yet emphatically connected for the Chinese. Among European Westerners, authoritative child rearing is more unmistakable and supposedly rears more valuable results to the kid. Middle Easterner culture has been portrayed as authoritarian; youngsters are required to take after parent’s controls, desires, and requests (Dwairy, 2004). Acquiescence is a focal part of making an agreeable aggregate society among Arabs and noncompliance is viewed as an extreme wrongdoing that outcomes in serious results (Dwairy, 2004).
    The three articles that looked at parenting styles across cultures discussed in this paper have provided sufficient evidence that the concept of parenting styles is culturally specific. Across the three cultures examined, European American, Chinese and Arab, there was a significant difference in how each culture understood the style of authoritarian parenting. For the Europeans, authoritarian parenting is associated with a style that is strict, demanding, obedient oriented and nonresponsive to their child’s needs. This type of parenting style further leads to lower levels of adjustment, academic achievement, and well-being in their children. While Arab and Chinese culture sees the dimensions of authoritarian parenting positively. An authoritarian style in Chinese and Arab culture led children to have higher levels of academic achievement and did not see a decrease in their mental health or social adjustment as predicted in Baumrind’s categories of parenting styles. The reason for this difference can largely be explained by whether a culture is individualistic or collectivistic. In an individualistic culture like Europeans, there is an emphasis on developing autonomy, individual goals, and individual rights. In such a culture, the dimensions that make up authoritarian parenting is not congruent with the values promoted in an individualistic culture. Thus the impact of authoritarian parenting is seen to lead to negative outcomes. In collectivistic cultures like Chinese and Arab, there is a stronger emphasis on harmony within a kinship, each is seen to be dependent and embedded in a community, and the rights of families and society surpass those of the individual. In a collectivistic culture, the dimensions of authoritarian parenting like demand and control carry different meaning as they promote collectivistic values thus leading to positive outcomes for their children. Furthermore as displayed in Chao’s article, there are cultural specific dimensions that go beyond what constitutes as authoritarian parenting, as shown in concepts like ‘training’ and to ‘govern’ found in Chinese childrearing. From the findings of the three articles, it can be concluded that the concept of parenting styles universally exists as each culture exhibited a pattern of childrearing but the behavior and meaning that constitutes a category of parenting style differs across cultures. 


Chao, Ruth K. “Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.” Child Development, vol. 65, no. 4, 1994, pp. 1111–1119., doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00806.x.

Dwairy, Marwan. “Parenting Styles and Mental Health of PalestinianâArab Adolescents in Israel.” Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 2, 2004, pp. 233–252., doi:10.1177/1363461504043566.

Li, Yan, et al. “Maternal Socialization Goals, Parenting Styles, and Social-Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese and European American Young Adults: Testing a Mediation Model.” The Journal of Genetic Psychology, vol. 171, no. 4, 2010, pp. 330–362., doi:10.1080/00221325.2010.505969.

“Waste replenish them. It is known that the

“Waste not want not.”


During the 18th century, Malthus wrote ‘the rate of population growth is faster than the speed that food supplies can grow (BBC, 2017). In time, there would not be enough resources for everyone. NFU, 2017 states that global population is forecast to be over 9 billion by 2050, leading to an increasing demand for food and increasing further pressure on resources. A sustainable system is safe, healthy and with affordable food for all, without using natural resources at a rate that exceeds the capacity of the Earth to replenish them. It is known that the UK’s current food system is not sustainable and that we are facing threats to the security of our food supply.


Agriculture in the 21st century has pressures to produce more food to feed a growing population with a smaller rural labour force, but food loss and waste is still a severe issue and presents a global challenge. An estimated32 percent of all food produced in the world is lost or wasted from farm to fork which has huge economic, social, and environmental impacts.


Food lost


•    consumes approximately quarter of all water used in Horticulture and Agriculture industry,

•    requires cropland area the size of China,

•    is responsible for an estimated 8 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.


If food loss and waste were a country, it would be the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases after China and the USA (Goodwin, 2017).


Marcus Gover, CEO of WRAP, said that every person in the UK is responsible for reducing food waste. “Every person in the UK can help reduce food waste”. However, food waste activists, The Real Junk Food Project, said: “the food industry, not the consumer, must take responsibility” (, 2017). Either way, sustainable development aims to meet the demands of the present and not to deprive our future generations of the natural world of resources (ncerthelp4u, 2017).


It is estimated that there is approximately 15 times more food wasted on farms than at retail level. (The Northern Echo, 2017). The answer is that farms are often bearing the brunt of the risks and costs of food waste. Farmers are caught between many factors like variable weather, consumer demand, and perhaps most importantly, supermarket policies, which include:


• Penalising farmers when they run short of produce,

• Rejecting produce that’s the wrong size, shape or appearance

• Sometimes changing orders at the last minute eg. when they find a better deal with a different supplier


Looking forward to 2050, if yield increases are not enough to meet demand, the pressure will build to expand production areas.   Even if production area can be developed to meet demand, environmental damage and greenhouse gas emissions from the increase will be substantial (Hofstrand, 2014).


It is not always clear which technologies are profitable for farming to develop, and which farm practices will contribute to be sustainable farming systems in the long-term. Agricultural research requires vast amounts of productivity and investment. There is also a long lag time from initiating research to the actual application of new technologies so, investments need to be made soon for the impact on productivity to emerge by 2050.

In the past, research was often directed at solving technical problems; now it is aimed at defining research to produce the best technology which can address demands of society. Those priorities include biological pest control, biotechnology, information technology, precision farming, integrated and organic farming systems.

Other issues, however, relate to education and the training of such systems. Furthermore, some sustainability issues are not necessarily best addressed through technological options, but just by changing the level and type of agricultural production and its location.


If we assume that agricultural production needs to increase 70 percent by 2050 to be able to provide for 9 billion people, cutting food waste by half over the next forty years means we will only need to increase agricultural production by 45 percent instead of 70 percent (Hofstrand, 2014).


The UK has until 2025 to meet the next Court Agreement target of reducing food and drink waste by an ambitious 20 percent which can only be achieved if supermarkets, manufacturers and local authorities combine their efforts and put food sustainability before profit.

Age the patients was taken and then Demerijian

Age estimation using Orthopantomograph and Willems method in Chitwan population: an original study

Abstract: Utilization of age estimation has increased manifold in recent years. Various methods available for age estimation before the complete dentition has erupted and matured till the root closure stage include Nolla’s stages, Demirijan”s method, modified Demirijan’s method by Willems, Haavikko’s method. So, in this study we have tested that on Chitwan population of Nepal.

Materials and methods: 60 patients between the ages 6-16 were selected and digital orthopantomographs of each of the patients was taken and then Demerijian method was applied and age estimation done by Willems method. Whereas the chronolical age was known and the reliability of this method on this population checked.

Results : The study shows correlation between chronological age CA and estimated dental age DA in males – .965 while in females – .861 and it is statistically significant

Conclusion: There was an underestimation of age i.e. the dental age was found out to be less than the actual chronological age of the sample. This shows the dental growth lag in the Chitwan  population. It was also found that when a comparison is done between the males and females it is found out that the females mature earlier than the males.

Keywords: OPG, Willems method, Chitwan population, Demirijans Method, Age Estimation, Forensic odontologist



Dental age estimation can serve as a very important tool in the identification of remains when done by a forensic odontologist.1 Forensic sciences deal with acquisition, documentation and evaluation of the evidence available so as to be presented in the court of trial.2 The word forensic has been derived from a Latin word Forensus and it relates to law and the evidence to be presented in court or a debate. In recent years there are many cases which need the age estimation to be done to find out the real age of the perpetrator of the crime so as to find out the law and the sections under which he falls as the laws and punishments are usually less for children before a certain age.3 These cases include burglary, rape, certain civil cases etc. Also when in case of murders or mass disasters, dead bodies or the skeletal remains are found age estimation can be done by dental methods so it is necessary that we find how reliably dental age is close to the chronological age.

Various methods available for age estimation before the complete dentition has erupted and matured till the root closure stage include Nolla’s stages, Demirijan”s method, modified Demirijan’s method by Willems, Haavikko’s method.4-8

Demerijan’s method was used to do age estimation in Caucasian studies but was found to overestimate the age so Willems8 has come forward with a modification which has been shown to be more accurate. So, in this study we are going to test that on Chitwan population of Nepal.

 Materials and methods

This study  was conducted in the department of Pedodontics, College of Medical sciences, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. The radiographs were done with the cooperation of the Oral medicine & Radiology Department.

The sample size was 60 patients between the ages 6-16 were taken and digital orthopantomographs of each of the patients was made by GENDEX ORTHORALIX 9200 following all the standard protocols and radiographs. These OPGs were done by a single radiographer to avoid any bias. Informed consent was taken from all the individuals taken in the study.

An inclusion criteria was selected and satisfied while taking the individuals for the study

(1)    with non contributory  medical history of systemic diseases or nutritional disorders (2) absence of any missing left mandibular teeth.

Whereas the exclusion criterion was taken to be (a) any serious psychiatric problems or endocrine diseases (b) history of extraction of permanent teeth, (c) Trauma to the face, (d) impacted or ankylosed teeth, (e) congenital developmental abnormalities.

All the 60 patients were examined clinically and the name, sex, birthdate and the date at which radiograph is taken was recorded by an individual not involved in doing the examination and performance of Willems Method on radiograph.

Then the digital panoramic radiographs were used to assess the calcification stages of the permanent teeth in left mandibular side from the central incisor to the second molar, using the Demirijan’s method modified by Willems. Using the Willems criterion, the age was calculated by summing up the various values and the dental age was calculated by this method.

The chronological age was calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date on which the OPG is taken.

TABLE 1. The tooth formation stages as given by Demirijan and used in this study are as follows:

A- Calcified cusp tips that are not fused.

B- Calcified cusp tips that are fused with well-defined occlusal surface outline.

C- Complete formation of enamel at occlusal surface. Commencement of dentinal deposition.

D- Completion of crown formation upto cement enamel junction. Root formation is seen and pulp horns begin to differentiate.

E- Pulp horns and pulp chamber are more differentiated. Root length is less than crown length. Radicular bifurcation is visible in molars.

F- Funnel shaped apex is seen. Crown length is equal and greater than root length.

G- Root canal walls are parallel and the apical ends are still open.

H- Apical ends are closed and uniform periodontal ligament space is seen around the tooth.

TABLE 2 8Developmental tooth stages with corresponding age scores expressed directly in years for each of the seven left mandibular teeth in boys and girls



































































































































This study took the sample size to be 60 individuals amongst which 36 were females and 24 males. The mean chronological age of 60 samples – 13.36, while the mean estimated age of 60 samples-13.7 (TABLE 3)





Std. Deviation



60 60

13.3567 13.747


The difference that have been found out between the actual chronological age and the estimated dental age is statistically significant with a p value <0.05.   TABLE 4. Mean Chronological Age And Mean Estimated Age Of Males And Females GENDER   N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION CORELATION   P-VALUE MALE CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 24 13.14 2.10 0.965 0.000 ESTIMATED AGE 24 13.83 1.63 FEMALE CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 36 13.56 1.72 0.861 0.000 ESTIMATED AGE 36 13.82 2.12   The correlation between chronological age CA and estimated dental age DA in males - .965 while in females - .861 and it is statistically significant p value < 0.05 DISCUSSION: Age estimation has become an indispensible part of forensics these days because of its role in many different types of crimes and in times of mass disasters like tsunami. Forensic odontologists use the dentition to estimate the age of the deceased. Though there are many different methods for age estimation in adults like amino acid estimation mainly d-amino acid estimation, Gustafson's method, dental cementum increment analysis etc but developing teeth can be used to give a dental age estimation by seeing the developing teeth. Ages 6 years till 12-13 years comprises the mixed dentition period when the teeth are developing and thus by seeing the mineralization of these teeth, the age estimation techniques have been used.9 Digital orthopantomograms are a reliable source where a single radiograph can be effectively used to see the developmental status of whole dentition and use it for the purpose of dental age estimation. Certain problems like systemic diseases such as endocrine problems which can lead to delay in the eruption or mineralization of teeth have been excluded from the studies. Also, patients were asked for a history of previous trauma in the region which could have impeded the growth in some way. The methods presently available for the age estimation seeing The various methods of age assessment using the tooth development show an ethnic variation In 2001, Willems et al.,evaluated the accuracy of Demirjian's method on a Belgian population  and they concluded that no two individuals grow and develop at the same rate.8 So it can be concluded that there are variation in tooth development amongst populations and ethnic groups.10-11 So, this study was performed to compare the DA assessment in children of Chitwan district in Nepal. In this study it was found out there was an underestimation of age i.e. the dental age was found out to be less than the actual chronological age of the sample.12 This shows the dental growth lag in the Nepalese population. It was also found that when a comparison is done between the males and females it is found out that the females mature earlier than the males. 13-15 We should always keep in mind that till date there is no method of estimation of age which is totally accurate since the development varies between individuals naturally. DA is not same for all the people in the same chronological age. References 1.      Bagic IC, Sever N, Brkic H, Kern J. Dental age estimation in children using orthopantomograms. Acta Stomatol Croat2008;42:11-8. 2.      Willems G. A review of the most commonly used dental age estimation techniques. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2001;19:9-17. 3.      Lewis AB, Garn SM. The relationship between tooth formation and other maturational factors. Angle Orthod 1960;30:70-7. 4.      Koshy S, Tandon S. Dental age assessment: the applicability of Demirjian's method in South Indian children. Forensic Sci Int 1998;94(1-2):73-85. 5.      Liversidge HM , Speechly T , Hector MP. Dental maturation in British children: are Demirjian's standards applicable? Int J Paediatr Dent 1999;9(4):263-269. 6.       Frucht S , Schnegelsberg C , Schulte-Mönting J , Rose E , Jonas I. Dental age in southwest Germany: a radiographic study. J Orofac Orthop 2000;61(5):318-329. 7.      Prabhakar AR, Panda AK, Raju OS. Applicability of Demirjian's method of age assessment in children of Davangere. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20(2):54-62. 8.      Willems G, Olmen AV, Spiessens B, Carels C. Dental age estimation in Belgian children: Demirjian's technique revisited. J Forensic Sci 2001;46(4):893-895 9.      Singh N, Grover N, Puri N, Singh S, Arora S. Age estimation from physiological changes of teeth: A reliable age marker? Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences. 2014;6(2):113-121. doi:10.4103/0975-1475.132541. 10.  Asaba SA, Noorb SNFM . The accuracy of Demirjian's method in dental age estimation of Malay children. Singapore Dent J 2011;32(1):19-27. 11.  Grover S. Estimation of dental age and its comparison with chronological age: accuracy of two radiographic methods. Med Sci Law January 2012;52(1):32-35. 12.  Maber M, Liversidge HM, Hector MP. Accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods using developing teeth. Forensic Sci Int 2006;15(l):68-73. 13.  Maber M, Liversidge HM, Hector MP. Accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods using developing teeth. Forensic Sci Int 2006;159 Suppl 1:S68?73. 14.   Liversidge HM. Dental age revisited. In: Irish JD, ditors. Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 234?52. 15.  Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Liversidge HM, Prieto JL, Brkic H. Accuracy of age estimation in children using radiograph of developing teeth. Forensic Sci Int 2008;176:173?7