Summer injury.This consistent pressure disturbs the blood flow

Summer is 81 years old,she is still mobile but is showing early signs of dementia, malnutrition and has a low body weight. She has been living with her husband, who has been caring for her until a few weeks ago when he brought her to the Nursing home, because he could not cope anymore. On initial evaluation the nurse has established that Summer has grade one pressure ulcers.Pressure Ulcers or bedsores are when the skin has been put under too much pressure, which affects the skin and the underlying tissue and causing injury.This consistent pressure disturbs the blood flow to the skin, deprives it of oxygen and nutrients and without a blood flow the skin is starting to break down, which leads to pressure ulcers.It is very common in elderly over 70 years of age to develop pressure ulcers due to their aging skin, reduced mobility or reduced blood supply.There are 3 different types of pressures:Shear pressure-is when layers of skin are forced to slide over each other, when a person is sliding down from a bed or being pulled up and out of bed/wheelchair.Interface-is the pressure when the skin is being pressed down onto a hard surfaceFriction-is the pressure of something being rubbed against the skin, like a mattress or clothingThere are 4 different types of grades for pressure ulcers:Grade 1- the skin might feel itchy, warm, hard, or hurt, it is slightly on the skin and it can appear discoloured.Grade 2-the skin looks like a blister or open wound, where some of the inner layers or outer layers of the skin are damaged.Grade 3-the whole thickness of the skin is being broken down and the tissue underneath is damaged.Bones and muscles are not damaged and the skin looks like an open hole.Grade 4-is the most serious of all the pressure ulcers, where the skin is so badly damaged that the tissue around it begins to die. Bones and muscles may also be affected. People with grade 4 pressure ulcers have a serious risk of developing life threatening infections.Pressure Ulcers are also affected by Intrinsic Factors like aging, immobilization, poor nutrition, chronic illness,mental health conditions or urinary/bowel incontinence.Or Extrinsic Factors like pressure from beds or wheelchairs, moisture/humidity, or pressure put onto the skin through reflex, like muscle spasmCLIENTS NEEDS:Healthcare needs:Summer underwent a risk assessment on admission to the nursing home. She was assessed for her mobility, posture, symptoms that may cause infection, her mental health,general health, diet and if she had any pressure ulcers in the past. On evaluation she has been assigned a special mattress, as she has very frail skin, she is being put on a rotational chart, when laying in bed and on a nutritional chart with vitamin supplements to monitor her intake.Physical needs:Summer does need reminding to wash/shower herself, which she is able to and she is encouraged to use topical creams and ointments to speed up the healing process and to stop developing more pressure ulcers and talcum powder for areas that have excess moisture.The Healthcare assistant can also provide her with the shampoo/lotion that she normally uses, to make her feel more comfortable in her new surroundings. Since Summer is so frail and thin, it is advisable to routinely check her skin for discolouration, hard/cool skin,blisters or any damage to the skin and always ask for her constant.Nutrition:Summer has been put on a nutritional chart, which monitors her intake of food and fluids,that it will increase her intake of calories, proteins and vitamins like vitamin c and zinc, which are all helpful in improving her skin. It is also very important for Summer to be drinking adequate amounts of fluid to avoid dehydration, which can be assessed by the Healthcare assistant in checking if Summer has dry or sticky mouth, dry skin, is constipated or by her decreased/discoloured urine output.She likes to be in the dining room with the other residence and needs reminding to drink her fluids.Mobility:Summer is mobile but tends to sit in a chair for a very long time and the Healthcare assistant is reminding her to shift her weight frequently every 15-30 minutes. She is also being provide with a cushion to relieve her of pressure and make sure that she is sitting well positioned. There are various forms of cushions for pressure ulcers, some are made of foam, gel, water or air filled. Summer is also being encouraged to walk around as she needs reminding because of her early onset of dementia.It is very important that she stays as active and mobile, as with the number one cause of getting pressure sores is when a person in imobile.Positioning:It is very important that Summer is being repositioned, due to her frail skin and forgetfulness and has been put on a positioning chart. The Healthcare Assistant should encourage her to change her body position every two hours. She has been prescribed with a special foam mattress pad to help with her positioning,which will relieve some pressure and protect delicate areas of the skin.The bed can also be elevated, no more than 30 degrees, which will prevent shearing. It is also advisable to use cushions on Summer due to her frail skin, to protect her from lying on her hip and protect ankles/knee/calves, any bony areas.Hygiene:The Healthcare Assistant is inspecting Summers skin daily, after she has given her consent , as it is very important to detect early signs of pressure ulcers. Summer is helping with the process and always voices any concerns she has with new areas that are of discomfort to her.She is being reminded to use talcum powder on moist areas of her skin and to apply lotion, as such an everyday task can be easily forgotten in her condition. Skin can be protected by inspecting that the sheets are wrinkle free and her clothes should be checked for buttons. Toileting:When skin is being exposed to too much moisture it becomes prone to infection which can lead to pressure ulcers. Summer does not have any bladder problems or incontinence which can expose areas to become moist, but the Healthcare Assistant will report any changes to the supervisor or nurse.Skin Care:Ageing skin is more susceptible of pressure ulcers due to the elasticity lost in skin, which increases damage. Summers skin is very thin and due to her low body weight,her skin losses fat which reduces the blood flow. Bacteria and infections can enter the skin easier when it is being broken down.  Mrs. Bays skin should be inspected on the parts of her body where the bone is close to the skin e.g. hips, elbows, lower back, tailbone,knee, ankle.ASSESSMENT TOOLS:The use of pressure risk assessment tools is to indicate if the client is at risk of developing pressure ulcers. These assessment tools/scales are:the waterlow, norton and braden which are most widely used.The norton scale determines a client’s mobility/activity, physical and mental condition and incontinence.Low risk ?18Medium Risk 14–17High Risk 10–13Very High Risk <10The client should be categorized into one of the above categories.The braden scales has six categories on which it tests the client's risk of developing a pressure ulcer looking into nutrition, friction, mobility, activity, the person's sensory perception and moisture (incontinence/ sweat) each category is rated from 1-4 and the lower the score the greater the risk is. The waterlow score should be used with the health care assistants/nurse judgement.The primary aim of this tool is to assist you to assess risk of a patient/client developing a pressure ulcer. Use this together with your clinical judgement.The Waterlow consists of seven items: build/weight, height, visual assessment of the skin, sex/age, continence, mobility, and appetite, and special risk factors, divided into tissue malnutrition, neurological deficit, major surgery/trauma, and medication.The tool identifies three 'at risk' categories, a score of 10-14 indicates 'at risk' a score of 15-19 indicates 'high risk', and a score of 20 and above indicates very high risk.( OF ASSISTANCE REQUIRED:Summer is still very active in her daily activities and is able to feed, dress, toilet, shower herself unassisted. Due to her malnutrition and low body weight Summer needs to be monitored of her food and fluid intake by the Healthcare Assistant. Since she also forgets to finish her food  quite often and does not like to drink too much, the Healthcare Assistant should remind or/and encourage her to finish her meals and fluids and should be aware of any changes that occur. The HCA should pay special attention if Summers dementia condition is worsening and report to the supervisor or/and nurse.It is very important to have and maintain a safe environment for Summer since she already has a pressure ulcer and she is encouraged to wear her slippers with rubber soles at all times to prevent falling. The Healthcare Assistant can make sure that there is adequate lighting in her room, since she likes to read in the night and that the pathways are tidied away and the HCA can examine that the floor/tiles are not wet or slippery after Summer has showered.It is very important for the Healthcare Assistant to be empathetic with Summer when communicating with her, since moving to a nursing home and having to get used to a new routine is very confusing and hard time for her. Summer likes to be independant and make her own choices and the HCA should encourage her by giving her choices whenever possible, what foods to eat, what activities she likes to do, so she still feels control of her life. It is important that the HCA should communicate efficiently with her, asking her if she would finish her meal rather than ordering her to finish it.Summer is using a high spec foam mattress to provide her with more ease and comfort for her pressure ulcers.  Pressure relieving devices redirect the pressure over an even area such as a cushion, mattress and dynamic air loss system. Since Summer is very mobile she does not require any mechanical aids and is using cushion support when she is sitting for extended period of time.RECOMMENDATIONS:There have been various studies suggesting the link between malnutrition and pressure ulcers. Since Summer is more susceptible in developing pressure ulcers because she is undernourished, has low body weight she should be carefully monitored/ assessed.The HCA should always act towards Summer with compassion, kindness, safety, competence and protecting her from harm by giving her quality care in a safe environment. An alternative or additional care plan for Summer could be put into place eg.Pressure Ulcer Prevention Plan. Where the HCA would encourage Summer to make small changes when she is sitting, to lift her legs, to push herself up with her arms, to have her standing up and being active, eg. walking around, participating in exercises offered in the Nursing home and her skin should be examined daily, by herself and with the help of the HCA.The HCA should report to the supervisor/nurse if there is a drastic change in summers with regards to their nutritional intake and if the clients mentality is getting worse. Also the clients change in skin, usage of mattress/ underlay. It is very important to report and document any changes in Summer and passing them on to the supervisor/nurse for Summers consistent care plan.EVALUATION:Her Pressure Ulcers have healed up and no new ones have been detected.Her Dementia is slightly worsening with her losing concepts of time/place and she is misplacing items often.Since meeting Summers there has been a greater knowledge of the stages of dementia and how to prevent and deal with pressure ulcers.How hard it is for elderly people to integrate themselves into new surroundings and to still have a sense of independance.It is great to see Summer thriving in her new environment, that she gained weight,eliminated her pressure sores and joined social and activity classes, where she made new friends. A new revised care plan and nutrition plan will be put into place for Summer after a new evaluation of what her new condition/needs are.All characters and names are fictional.

Know to their customers for the sake of

The Risks.

Why do you go to nails salons? Obviously, to
get the best looking nails! These places also happen to be the best places to
relax and meditate as you wait for your nails to be machined perfectly to look
good. As you lay on that couch have you ever thought about the risks you may be
paving way for? Do you know most nails salons totally focus on the quantity of
traffic they are serving and sacrificing the quality they are giving to their
customers for the sake of monetary value?


Thus it is no wonder for them not to follow
the prescribed disinfecting procedures. They won’t have that time to disinfect
the tool and they will use it on you. I can almost hear you think on the number
of germs that will come into contact with that pretty skin. Cleaning the
footbaths’ drains, can you hesitate to concur with me that this one too will be
messed up with?


This recklessness is making you vulnerable to
different types of infections some of which you can’t imagine can be
transmitted through visits to the nail salons and that can cause lifelong
health problems and even scary and painful medications. The following are the
top risks and their preventive measures in our reputable nail salon to ensure
our customers are always safe.


difficulties. In a nail salon, there are
dozens of different chemicals used on your nails. So you and the technician are
throughout exposed to inhale these chemicals. Some of the chemicals used as
disinfectants and the artificial nails products contain quantities of quaternary
ammonium compounds and methyl methacrylate which have been associated with
asthma. To curb the prevalence of this risk a salon must be well ventilated so
that the fumes of these chemicals won’t build up in the room.


Great risk of
fungal infections. Fungal infections such
as Athletes foot have a great affinity to heat and moisture which are present
in almost all nail salons. Their breeding grounds are in the foot baths used
before the pedicure. These infections will spread when an infected person uses
the same bath used by other customers. To halt or prevent the occurrences of
this types of infections you should maintain a high hygiene standard of
footbaths which can be done by use of antifungal cleaning agents.


Hepatitis C
Infections. Since Hepatitis C is a virus
that seriously affects the liver and which is widely spread through coming into
contact with the infected blood, make sure that you have disinfected all tools,
chairs, and the footbaths. It is the main reason technicians use gloves when
handling used tools so as to guarantee the safety against this virus.


Acquiring Warts. Did you know that warts are caused by the contagious HPV
(human papillomavirus)? They are quite easily transmitted to you by use of
instruments that are not thoroughly disinfected between customers. The virus
penetrates through tiny skin cuts. The pumice stone also has been identified to
spread the virus if it’s used by multiple customers. To prevent you from
acquiring warts we always disinfect our tools and also pumice stone.


Contracting HIV. If the sanitary procedures are not employed to disinfect
the tools used between customers, HIV may be contracted from the reuse of the
tool like the manicure equipment from an HIV positive person to the other
customer. This why we are very cautious when handling our customers so that you
don’t contract this virus.


Having listed some of the risks that you may
be paving way for, it’s your duty now to always be conscious and cautious of
what is going on when your nails are being done the next time you visit the
nail salon.


December it’s important to remember NAFTA throughout the

8, 1993. Bill Clinton’s signature makes NAFTA law. The agreement comes into
affect three weeks later, on January 1, 1994. (  Since then, NAFTA’s impacts have made massive
change to Canada. There were many impacts, but some of the most relevant are
Canada being on an equal playing field with the other big North American
nations, the continues shift in Canada’s culture, and the large economic growth.
Due to these impacts that have shaped and changed Canada, it’s important to
remember NAFTA throughout the future, and a memorial would be the best way to
do so.

North American Free Trade Agreement is a multilateral trade agreement between
Mexico America and Canada made to dissolve trade barriers between the nations,
allowing each nations businesses and economies to take advantage of what each
other offered. ( ) An important part about this trade
agreement is that it is multilateral, and not bilateral. What this means is
that there are more than two countries involved. A bilateral trade agreement is
more of a trade partnership between nations, meaning multilateral agreements are
much larger. NAFTA is one of the world’s largest free trade zones, and allows Mexico,
the USA, and Canada to operate more like a single country. (
gave Canada much more power and made it more attractive to businesses as apart
of this free trade zone.


did have some concerns, however. A result of having a relationship such as the
one Canada has America is the more powerful country having a major cultural
influence on the other country. So when Canada’s main trade partner became
America, Canadian culture became more American. (The World of Business, Fifth
Edition) While Canada does benefit from having a trading partner like America,
and NAFTA did allow Canada to gain more access to American markets, America did
as a result gain more access to Canada’s and fill Canada with even more of its
goods and services. American influence on Canada has been around for a long
time, but NAFTA made it even easier for Canada to be influenced by American
culture. As a result, NAFTA has been a large part of Canada’s cultural change.

influence concerns and equal playing field involving Canada. These are two
major impacts of NAFTA. However, arguably the biggest impact of them all, the
one the treaty was made to create, is economic growth. The whole point of
dissolving trade barriers and create free trade zone between the three
countries was so each country could benefit off each other more easily. Within
nine years of NAFTA being made law Canada experienced economic growth of 30.9%,
and trade with the USA to be increased 250%. By 2015, total merchandise trade
made had increased more than three times, summing up to greater than $1
trillion USD. This has benefited Canada greatly. (The World of Business, Fifth

the twenty-four years since NAFTA was made law, Canada has changed. Our economy
has grown, as well as Mexico’s and America’s. NAFTA has helped these countries
work together to make each of them bigger. However, NAFTA also embodies many concerns
of what was happening at the time and still to this day, like low wage
exploitation and culture influence.  Due
to the impacts that have shaped and changed Canada, it’s important to remember
NAFTA throughout the future, and a memorial would be the best way to do so.

What seeds we will not have plants, vegetables

What Type of Soil is the Best For Growing SeedsAddison Grace MaxwellCarrollton Junior High School Table of ContentsContents?Table of Contents 2Introduction 3Methodology 4Results 5Conclusions 6References 7? IntroductionI would like to determine what is the best type of soil for growing seeds.  So this is the question I will try to answer in my science experiment.  There are many different types of soil available to choose from.  Without the ability to grow seeds we will not have plants, vegetables or flowers.  Without plants we will not have fresh air to breath so seeds are very important.  Often people grow their own vegetables to survive.  Without the ability to take a seed and grow it into a healthy plant that produces vegetables, many people would not be able to survive.   My goal is to determine which type of soil grows the healthiest plant.  I will also determine which type of soil produces a plant in the least amount of time and then determine if that type of soil is able to sustain the plant and allow it to grow into a prosperous plant.   My hypothesis is yard dirt will grow the best type of seed.  This is the most natural type of soil and I think it will provide the best environment for the seed to grow.  I will compare yard dirt, seed-starting soil mix, potting soil, peat moss and sand to determine which is the best type of soil for growing a seed.  I will take marigold seeds and plant them in each type of soil.  I will monitor the soil to determine which type produces a plant first and document each plant’s growth.  I will also document the longevity of each of the plants to help determine the ability of the soil to sustain the plant.  According to Heilig (2013) there is little difference between seed-starting mix and potting soil. Based on my research, gardeners often find the type of soil they like best and use that type instead of trying out various types.   According to their are 4 or 5 basic health and growth needs a potting soil has to be able to supply a plant with to be successful.  These basic needs are aeration, water, nutrients, support, and light (  It will be interesting to determine exactly which type of soil offers the best combination of the basic needs to support a seed.   Also, there are specific types of soil that should be used for specific types of plants (  Flowers need a different type of soil than grass.  It is important to determine the best type of soil for the specific seed you are growing.  I will be using marigold seeds, which is a flower seed, so I will need to focus on the best type of soil for growing flowers.  Seeds and plants need lots of sunlight but not much water, you don’t want to overflow the seed/plant. Too much water can cause the plant to suffocate and not get the oxygen it needs to survives, basically drowning your plant so you need to be careful.  The soil you use needs to be moist or damp. My independent variable for this experiment is the seeds because they do not change. My dependent variable is the soil because I will be using all different types of soil.  I will use the same amount of water for each container of soil and provide the same amount of light.  MethodologyTo start this experiment, I will need potting soil, yard dirt, seed-starting soil mix, sand, peat moss, marigold seeds and containers to hold the dirt and seeds. The first thing you need to do is label each container with the type of soil it will contain.  Fill each container about three quarters of the way full with the specific soil and put five to seven marigold seeds in the soil.    The seeds need to be well covered by the dirt and spaced about 1 inch apart.  Once the seeds are planted I will put enough water in each container to make the soil damp.  I will cover each container with plastic wrap for the first week to provide a warm growing environment.  The containers are going to be placed under an artificial light source because I do not have a warm and sunny place to keep the plants in the winter.  After the first week I will remove the plastic wrap so the plants do not get too warm. I will document the plants height on a daily basis once they begin to break through the soil.  I will document which type of soil produced the first plants and continue to monitor the growth of the plants to determine the best type of soil to produce a healthy plant.  Results The above chart and graph show the growth of each seed in inches.  The growth was measured on a daily basis.  There was no growth observed in the first two days of the experiment.  On day three, there was growth in the seed soil.  This was the first growth I had seen.  On day four, there was growth in both sand, yard dirt, and seed soil.  The very last soil to produce a plant was the plain soil.  ConclusionsI found out that seed soil and yard dirt were the best but the seed soil was the first one to show up.  My hypothesis was somewhat correct.  The yard dirt did produce seeds just not as quickly as the sed soil.  The seeds grew in the sand at first but after a week, the seeds growing in the sand began to die. The sand was able to hold heat and water to help the seed grow at first but the sand did not the nutrients to maintain the plant.  The last soil to produce a plant was the plain soil. I was surprised that the plain soil was the last to produce a plant because I thought it would have enough nutrients to help the seed grow.  I have conclude that the best soil to go with is seed soil or just yard dirt.   The next time I want to grow a plant from a seed I will use a mix of seed soil and yard dirt.  From my research, I have determined that is the best combination of soil to grow seeds.  I will also share this information with anyone who would like to grow plants from seeds.  I was surprised at how well the seeds grew in the sand and also how well they grew in the yard dirt.  I was disappointed that the plants did not produce flowers.  The plants that did grow where very thin and weak.  If I could do this experiment again, I would like to do it in warmer weather where the plants could grow outside and get more sunlight.  ReferencesBibliographyHeilig. G (2013)., not say. (2017). , Schoellhorn,R. (2017).  Not said   ( 2017)   Frances,H. (2017) Acknowledgments I would like to thank Judy McMichael, my grandmother, for helping with this experiment.  She graciously let me use her house to grow my plants because my cats kept knocking it down.”I would like to thank my mom for taking the time to help me find the seeds and all the supplies need for this experiment.  

Community stockbroker Cawthra Mulock, and his group of

Community Theatre ReviewTO, VIVIANNEJANUARY, 11, 2018    From demolition site, to roaring theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, which can be found at 260 King St W, Toronto, Ontario, is one of the oldest and most famous theaters in North America. Owned, and operated under “Mirvish Productions”, and David Mirvish, the theatre is home to over 3,000 plays. The Royal Alexandra expresses the aspiration of the stockbroker Cawthra Mulock, and his group of business men, who all had a wish and desire to put their town of Toronto on the map by building “the finest theatre on the continent” (Last name, year). Since Cawthra, who was the leader of the group, has since died, David Mirvish bought the theatre, and wished to complete Cawthra’s. The Royal Alexandra strives to share the love of dramatic theatre to the public. The Royal Alexandra’s interior design offers three levels, a seating capacity of 1,497-seats, as well as a neoclassical design, an ancient theatre stage, accompanied with two balcony levels, built in the style typical of 19th century British theatres. ***look for statement or vision statement    Commonly referred to as the “R.A.T”, or “The Alex”, the legally “Royal” Alexandra Theatre was named after Queen Alexandra, the wife of King Edward VII, and great grandmother of the current Queen of Canada. The R.A.T is the oldest operating, and legitimate theatre in North America. At the time of it’s 1907 grand opening, the theatre sat on an “upscale” neighborhood, now currently known as the corner of King and Simcoe street. The theatre was financed by a group of business leaders. John McIntosh Lyle was the architect selected by these men for the “R.A.T”. They gave Lyle a budget of $750,000, as well as the instruction’s to “Build us the finest theatre on the continent” (Last name, year). Though Lyle went three times over the budget, the final product is one that is widely applauded. The theatre is widely recognized and known for its “outstanding” plays. Over the years, the theatre’s income declined. Not being able to withstand the upcoming popularity of technological entertainment, the men behind Mulock estate put the R.A.T up for sale, for a low price of $250,000. One condition of the sale being that, Ed Mirvish had to continue to operate the Royal Alex as a theatre for at least five years. If, at the end of the five years, he did not want to continue, he was then allowed to demolish the building and use the site for other reasons. He closed the theatre for a year for renovation, and since its re opening, the theatre is striving.

Abstract: help differentiate between types of iron disorders.

Abstract: Hepcidin; an
iron regulating hormone, is synthesized by the liver, influences the function
of ferroportin and macrophages. Regulates the iron levels in the body by attaching
to the ferropotin and stopping the efflux od iron into the body. It is studied
to see the effects of certain diseases related with the iron levels, and
measured to help differentiate between types of iron disorders. Its detected
and measured by various techniques, in this paper, four techniques are
discussed from their preparation till their end results. These techniques are matrix
assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectromy MALDI-TOF
MS, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE,
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA, and Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

Keywords: Hepcidin,
Iron, Anemia of Inflammation (AI), Hemochromatosis, ELISA, MALDI-TOF, SPS-PAGE,


Iron, an essential
element in life, is precisely controlled in the body. Its importance lies in
its role in the hemoglobin as an essential factor for the transportation of
oxygen. Although iron is vital, its free form is likely to be involved in
oxidation-reduction reactions, leading to the formation of free radicals and
oxidative stress. Living organisms have developed protein systems to transport
and store it in a readily mobilizable form to avoid iron toxicity (Daher, Manceau, & Karim, 2017) Hepcidin is one of the peptide hormones that helps in the
maintenance of body iron levels. Hepcidins involvement in iron metabolism was
suggested by the observation that its synthesis is induced by dietary iron (Pigeon et al., 2001).

 Human hepcidin is a 25-amino acid (aa) peptide
synthesized in the liver and is the main organ in which hepcidin mRNA is
expressed. Hepcidin exists as a preprohormone 84 amino acids, prohormone 60
amino acids, and hormone 25 amino acids. Twenty- and 22-amino acid
metabolites of hepcidin also exist in the urine. Deletion of 5 N-terminal amino
acids results in loss of function (Pandur et al., 2009). it reduces the amount of circulating iron by preventing its
release from cells, particularly enterocytes and macrophages. this small
peptide is rapidly eliminated in the urine (Daher et al., 2017). it is transported around the body via the circulation bound to
carrier proteins such as ?2-macroglobulin and albumin (Peslova et al., 2009).  Human hepcidin exerts antibacterial and
antifungal activities at 10–30 µM concentrations (Park, Valore, Waring, & Ganz,

Hepcidin has a
role in the regulation of iron transport; it interacts with the iron exporter
ferropotin, and since its discovery, hepcidin has provided a molecular
explanation of the homeostatic regulation of iron absorption and distribution
and of its malfunction in hemochromatosis and AI. It is researched for the
explanation of many iron disorders when the iron dietary intake is sufficient
to meet the body’s needs, one of these conditions is anemia of inflammation is
a common, typically normocytic normochromic anemia that is caused by an
underlying inflammatory disease (Nemeth & Ganz, 2014), And another condition is hemochromatosis; a disease in which
too much iron builds up in the body.(Whittington & Kowdley, 2002) (Ganz & Nemeth, 2006).

the liver
produces this small 25-amino-acid peptide and secretes it in a way that its
being regulated by inflammation, iron, erythroid activity, and hypoxia (Lane, Huang, & Richardson, 2013). Most of the absorbed dietary iron or the recycled iron from hemoglobin
is used for the development of erythrocytes. erythrocytes production is increased
in response to hypoxia or blood loss. Therefore, Hepcidin’s production is also
homeostatically regulated by hypoxemia and anemia (Nicolas et al., 2002).
When isn’t delivered adequately, erythrocytes are to be more produced by the homeostatic
response to hypoxia. causing hepcidin’s levels to diminish, so its inhibitory
effects will be decreased,

and iron’s
availability from the diet and from the storage pool in hepatocytes and
macrophages will

uptick (Ganz & Nemeth, 2006), (Elizabeta Nemeth et al., 2004).

The only known
iron exporter is ferroportin and it has an essential role in the export of iron

cells to blood,
and from one cell type to another (D. M. Ward & Kaplan, 2012). Liver produces hepcidin when iron stores are high or adequate, it
circulates to the small intestine. There, Hepcidin attaches to ferroportin,
which causes it to be to be endocytosed and degraded. then iron exportation
from enterocytes will be decreased; causing the cells to be filled with iron, which
will eventually be shed into the lumen of the intestine. In case of iron stores
are on the low range, the production of hepcidin is suppressed, ferroportin
will be functioning accordingly on the basolateral membranes of the
enterocytes, and iron will be transported from the enterocyte cytoplasm to the
plasma transferrin (E. Nemeth et al., 2004).

Transferrin exerts a crucial function in the maintenance of systemic iron
homeostasis as component of a plasma iron sensing system that modulates
hepcidin expression (Gkouvatsos, Papanikolaou, &
Pantopoulos, 2012).

Hepcidin can be
used to assess cases of iron disorders that are not responding to nutritional
and medical treatments. In this paper four types of techniques are being
discussed for the detection of hepcidin from diverse samples and how each
technique will handle the sample and analyze it. These four techniques are matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight
spectromy MALDI-TOF MS, sodium
dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE, enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay ELISA, and Real-time
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR


Method: In a
study, urine samples were used to measure the hepcidin levels from 56 patients
with colorectal cancer. The method was to dilute urine samples to 10?g
protein/mL in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, 100 mmol/L sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) and applied
to Cu2+ loaded IMAC30 ProteinChip arrays. MALDI spectra was obtained either by
applying diluted urine (20 ?g protein/mL) or urine desalted using ClinProt C8
magnetic beads (BrukerDaltronic) to GoldChips. Spectra were acquired on a PBS
IIc ProteinChip Reader (Ciphergen) using sinapinic acid as the matrix. Spectra
were normalized to total ion current, baselines
subtracted, and peaks picked using Ciphergen ProteinChip software..(D.
G. Ward et al., 2008)

Synthetic hepcidin-25 Peptides International was employed
for peak/assay validation. Immunocapture was performed, Briefly Protein G
sepharose beads loaded with or without rabbit polyclonal anti-hepcicin-25
(Abcam 31877) were incubated with human urine containing hepcidin 20, 22 and
25. The beads were washed extensively with 20 mmol/L ammonium bicarbonate and
the captured proteins eluted with 50% acetonitrile/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid
and analyzed by MALDI (D.
G. Ward et al., 2008)

Method validation: In the study they used a pre-determined
hepcidin positive urine sample and performed MALDI-TOF, they detected two major
forms of hepcidin; the mature hepcidin 25 (m/z 2793.8), and the N-terminally
truncated hepcidin 20 (m/z 2195.3), in the addition to a hepcidin 22 (m/z
2440.5) that corresponds to a urinary degradation product of hepcidin 25. The
demonstration of the appearance of a hepcidin 25 peak was done by spiking a
urine sample devoid of hepcidin with a synthetic human hepcidin peptide. To
determine if MALDI-TOF MS could be used in a semi-quantitative manner the urine
sample was spiked with low endogenous hepcidin and demonstrated a linear relationship
between hepcidin concentration and intensity of the hepcidin 25 peak. As for
the urine samples of the colorectal cancer patients, the urine was desalted
before the performance of MALDI-TOF because it might interfere with mass
spectromy. Only hepcidin 20 and 25 expression level were analyzed, hepcidin 22
wasn’t analyzed because it is a urine specific degradation product of it. Using
a Spearman Rank test, the correlation coefficients were made Desalting
MALDI-TOF MS vs MALDI-TOF MS, correlation coefficient
= 0.56 P < 0.0001 (D. G. Ward et al., 2008). SDS-PAGE: Method: In a study, proteins in a hepatocyte cell line and in primary human hepatocytes were metabolically radiolabeled and selectively immunoprecipitated hepcidin and its precursors to analyze hepcidin processing (Valore & Ganz, 2008). The human cell line HepG2 clone 4246 was used to metabolically label hepcidin. Prior to radiolabeling, cells were depleted of the intracellular cysteine and methionine by incubation for 1–2 hour in cysteine and methionine-free RPMI containing dialyzed 5% FCS (to deplete free amino acids). In T25 vented flasks, cells were labeled by the addition of 100 ?Ci 35SCys-Met (Valore & Ganz, 2008). broad spectrum prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors DMOG and DPD were added at concentrations of 500 and 10 ?M, respectively, 24 h prior to and during the radiolabeling procedure; in order to determine if hypoxia has affected the hepcidin processing through the HIF pathway (Valore & Ganz, 2008). Radiolabeled cells were washed with PBS then extracted by vigorous pipetting with 1ml ice cold NETT buffer (20mMTris–HCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100) containing protease inhibitor cocktail. Extracts were incubated on ice for 30 min then cell debris were removed by centrifugation. A volume of 30 ?l rabbit polyclonal antiserum directed to the propiece (aa; 25–59) SVFPQQTGQLAELQPQDRAGARASWMPMFQRRRRR, or to the mature synthetic refolded peptide (aa; 60–84) was added to a 1/5 volume of cleared cell lysate or culture media and was incubated on ice for 30–60 minutes. Protein A-agarose was added as a 50% slurry in PBS in a volume of 40 ?l and mixed overnight at 4 C. Then agarose was washed with PBS and the immunoprecipitate eluted by incubation in 30–40 ?l 3×sample loading buffer (170mMTris–HCl, pH 8.8, 21% wt/vol glycerol, 6% SDS wt/vol, 120 mM dithiothreitol) at 4 C overnight then boiled for 20 min (Valore & Ganz, 2008). SDS-Tricine polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and fluorography: separation of the Radiolabeled hepcidin was on a 16.5% SD Tricine polyacrylamide gel with a 4% polyacrylamide stacking layer, stained with Coomassie blue, de-stained in 25% methanol/0.4% formaldehyde then soaked in liquid scintillant (1Msodium salicylate, 4% ethylene glycol, 35% ethanol). After drying, the gels were exposed to Kodak BioMax MS X-ray film at ?80 °C (Valore & Ganz, 2008). the hepcidin Primary human hepatocytes were treated with BMP-9 to induce the expression of hepcidin as otherwise the hepcidin peptide concentrations were too low to detect by metabolic radiolabeling. BMP-9 was added approximately 20 h prior to and during amino acid depletion and radiolabeling with 35Smet–cys and 14C-labeled amino acids. As in HepG2 cells, hepcidin is first made as a proprotein, then rapidly cleaved and secreted from the cell. Immunoprecipitation with anti-pro detected prohepcidin in the cell and a cleaved product released to the culture medium during the first hour of radiolabeling. However, the propiece is not detected at either 15 and 45 min of cold chase (Valore & Ganz, 2008). Immunoprecipitation: Immunoprecipitation (IP) uses the specificity of antibodies to isolate target proteins (antigens) out of complex sample mixtures (Kaboord & Perr, 2008). ELISA: Method: in a study that included 32 healthy controls, 7 patients with HJV associated juvenile hemochromatosis, 10 with iron deficiency anemia and 7 with Hodgkin's Lymphoma Manifesting B-symptoms. Human blood serum and hepatocell line were used.  Recombinant hepcidin25-His was expressed in yeast P. pastoris and the biological activity of the isolated monomer was tested. Recombinant hepcidin25-His was used for the immunization of rabbits and the polyclonal antiserum was extensively purified with affinity chromatography. To determine its binding activity against native hepcidin we first performed immunohistochemistry on paraffin embedded mouse liver sections. The antibody showed a strong cytoplasmic staining in hepatocytes that was reduced after preincubation with hepcidin25-His. the specificity of the antibody against the native peptide in serum was shown by Western Blot analysis of TCA-precipitated proteins less than 30 kDa from 10 ml of serum. A single band at 3 kDa was detected. This signal was abolished when the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with the recombinant peptide hepcidin25-His (Koliaraki et al., 2009). Expression and purification of recombinant hepcidin25-His: recombinant hepcidin25-His in its monomeric form were used to develop the assay. Briefly, a P. pastoris clone expressing hepcidin25 with a His-tag at its C-terminal was grown for 24 h at 30°C and then induced for 3 days by methanol 0.5%. Culture supernatant was concentrated and dialyzed with the use of a TFF Prep Scale Ultrafiltration system equipped with a 1 kDa filter. The concentrate was first purified using Ni -NTA metal affinity chromatography and then by size exclusion chromatography with a Peptide Superdex column to isolate the monomer. Immunization procedure: 100 ?g of the recombinant hepcidin25-His diluted into 0.4 mL in PBS were mixed with 0.4 mL of Complete Freund's adjuvant, and injected into New Zealand white rabbits subcutaneously. The serum was tested for antibody activity with ELISA assay. Purification of the polyclonal antibody: Polyclonal antiserum was extensively purified by affinity chromatography. ELISA procedure: 96-well microtiter plates (Costar, Corning, NY) were coated with hepcidin25-His diluted at 0.5 mg/L in PBS, pH 7.4, at 4°C, for 16 hours. Simultaneously, the polyclonal antibody diluted at 0.33 mg/L in 3% BSA in PBS was incubated with an equal amount of the calibrator or diluted serum (8 ?l in 25 ?l PBS per well) for 16 h at 4°C. As calibrator we used hepcidin25-His diluted in PBS (5, 20, 50, 200, 500 ?g/L). Quantification of the recombinant peptide was performed with a fluorescent quantification system. Subsequently, the plates were washed twice with PBS and blocked with 100 ?l of 3% BSA in PBS for 1 h at 37°C. The complexes formed were then added to the coated wells in quadruplicates and incubated for 1 h at 37°C. After 10 washes with PBS containing 0.5 ml/L Tween 20, the plates were incubated with a secondary anti-rabbit antibody conjugated with HRP (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA) diluted 1?2000 in 3% BSA in PBS for 1 h at room temperature. The plates were washed as before, and visualization of the signal was accomplished after addition of 3,3?,5,5? tetramethylbenzidine for 10 min at room temperature. The reaction was stopped after the addition of 0.2 N sulphuric acid and color development was measured photometrically at 450 nm with a microplate reader (Bio-rad Model 680). Construction of the standard curve was then performed with Microsoft Office Excel (Koliaraki et al., 2009). Method validation: The competition ELISA produces a typical calibration curve for the recombinant hepcidin25-His. The analytical limit of detection of the ELISA assay, defined as the concentration corresponding to the mean signal+3 SD of 10 replicates of the zero calibrator was 5.4 ?g/L. The measurement range was from 10–1500 ?g/L. For the statistical analysis of the linearity, reproducibility, and recovery of the hepcidin ELISA assay, 3 serum samples were used ranging from low (22 ?g/L) to high (150 ?g/L) concentrations chosen from the 32 normal sera tested. The intra-assay coefficients of variance (CVs) were 8–15%, evaluated by assaying 12 replicates of each sample in a single assay. The inter-assay CVs were 5–16% as evaluated by 7 subsequent measurements of the test samples. Inter- and intra-assay CV for the standard curve was 8.5% and 2.8%, respectively. Recovery rate was done by adding the calibrator at 7.5, 30 and 75 ?g/L in each serum sample. It was found to range from 99–115% with a mean recovery index of 107%. Mean linearity was estimated at 101% after measuring 3 serial dilutions (1?2, 1?4, 1?8) of the 3 samples. To determine whether the assay was providing biologically meaningful measurements, serum samples from patients with anticipated low and high hepcidin levels were tested and compared to healthy controls. compared to age-matched healthy controls (42.7 ?g/L), hepcidin concentration was significantly lower in 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia (15.7 ?g/L, p<0.010) and 7 patients with juvenile hemochromatosis (12.8 ?g/L, p<0.010), and significantly higher in 7 untreated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and B-symptoms (116.7 ?g/L, p<0.010). they have done correlation with an already established method SELDI-TOF MS to better evaluate the ELISA method they've improved, and the samples procedure for SELDI-TOF MS was done in related way to that of ELISA to ensure correlation and comparison between the two methods; Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between the ELISA assay and the mass-spec method (correlation: 0.863, p=0.027) (Koliaraki et al., 2009). In conclusion, an ELISA assay capable of measuring hepcidin in human serum samples at a range of 10–1500 ?g/L with acceptable precision, linearity, recovery and specificity was developed. This assay is easy to apply and utilizes a small amount of unprocessed serum, shortening the processing time (Koliaraki et al., 2009). RT-PCR: In a study, they analyzed liver samples from patients undergoing hepatic surgery for cancer or receiving liver transplants and analyzed correlations between clinical parameters and liver hepcidin mRNA and urinary hepcidin concentrations. They wanted to check If urinary hepcidin levels correlate with the bodies levels and if it can be used as an indicator of it (Detivaud et al., 2005). polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive assay; Only trace amounts of DNA are needed. It amplifies the DNA Exponentially. The main components are: template DNA, primers, nucleotides, and DNA polymerase. The DNA polymerase is the key enzyme that links individual nucleotides together to form the PCR product (Garibyan & Avashia, 2013). Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): direct detection of PCR product during the exponential phase of the reaction, combining amplification and detection in a single step. By construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) plasmid clones, standard curves are generated that allow direct quantification of every unknown sample (Overbergh et al., 2003). Method: Total RNAs were extracted using the SV Total RNA Isolation System. to evaluate the hepcidin expression in each sample polymerase chain reactions were performed in triplicate, compared with the RNA18S expression and with a standard set using the qPCR-Core-kit. Primer and probe sequences used for the hepcidin amplification were: forward primer 5'-TCCCACAACAGACGGGACAA-3', reverse 5'-AGCAGCCGCAGCAGAAAAT-3' and FAM/TAMRA probe 5'-CCATGTTCCAGAGGCGAAGGAGGC-3'. The amplified 137-bp PCR fragment was checked by sequencing. For RNA 18S amplification we used the 18S genomic control kit. The PCR was run on ABI PRISM 7000 sequence detection: 95°C for 10 minutes followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 seconds and 60°C for 1 minute. Analysis of Data: For each sample, hepcidin mRNA threshold cycle (Ct) value was normalized with 18S RNA Ct value and compared to value of a standard sample which was a mix of 4 liver samples exhibiting readily detectable level of hepcidin mRNA as previously analyzed by Northern blot. Results were expressed in log 2 of ratio sample versus standard. The Urinary hepcidin assay was performed, and hepcidin concentration in urine expressed as ng hepcidin/mg creatinine. Because the lower detection limit of the urinary hepcidin assay is 1 ng/mg creatinine, samples with lower value were attributed a value of 1 ng/mg creatinine (Detivaud et al., 2005) Hepcidin mRNA and urinary hepcidin levels appeared to be positively correlated and increasing in parallel. This demonstrates that the urinary hepcidin assay can be considered a valid reflection of hepatic hepcidin production. Though these results might not be accurate since they were taken from patients going to surgery and having hepatic problems (Detivaud et al., 2005) In conclusion, urinary hepcidin concentrations significantly correlates with hepatic hepcidin mRNA concentrations, indicating that it is a valid approach to evaluate body's hepcidin expression. it is also found that in humans hepcidin levels correlates with hepatic iron stores and hemoglobin levels and maybe be affected by hepatic dysfunction (Detivaud et al., 2005)   MALDI-TOF MS SDS-PAGE ELISA RT-PCR Sample type urine Hepatocell line Blood and human serum and hepatocell line Urine and blood Sample processing multistep and process Multistep and process Small amount of unprocessed serum multistep and process Time Long time Long time Short time Long time accuracy Accurate - Accurate Accurate precision Precise Precise Precise   Conclusion: out of the four methods ELISA technique seems to be most productive and reliable one, in case of productivity, reproducibility, sample preparation, time, sample variety, and processing steps. A reliable and easy to apply hepcidin quantification method could prove a valuable tool for diagnostic applications, as hepcidin levels may be used for the differential diagnosis of several iron disorders, and with further refinement, hepcidin assays could contribute to the diagnosis and improved understanding of the pathophysiology of iron disorders.

Using fit. Looking at what is right, what

Using the Clifton
Strengths Finder as a self-discovery tool, the individual can identify the
areas where their greatest talents lie and build on them in any roles throughout
their life (“Strengths and Career Planning,” 2006). In career planning, knowing who you are is the
first step in finding a good fit. Looking at what is right, what is the most
important and most precious parts of the individual’s identity is crucial in
the career-planning process. The more an individual
know about themselves, the better it can help him or her to realise the environments
that will allow their talents to flourish. However just basing on talents alone is not enough for the
individual to achieve excellence in their work. Skills and knowledge have to be
acquired in order to develop their talents into strengths (“Strengths and Career
Planning,” 2006). This is known as the strengths-based development process.

Career counsellors or coaches can use the Clifton Strengths Finder as a
springboard for discussion to help the individual gather clues to the environment
that might bring out their best. After the assessment is completed and talent
feedback provided, a set of developmental suggestions that capitalizes on the
individual’s Signature Themes is provided. Below is an example of how some
environments might encourage the talents reflected in the theme (“Strengths
and Career Planning,” 2006). 

Central is in high demand, and since oil

Central CanadaThe oil and gas industry is the largest industry in the entire world and one of the most important. Alberta’s economy alone is one of the highest because of the oil industry. Alberta is the most valuable province to Canada as oil is in high demand, and since oil is important for many things to function, it keeps Canadians and the rest of the world alive while we find an alternative to fossil fuels. Oil is needed for us humans to create almost everything we have. Without the oil industries around the world, cars wouldn’t be able to run, factories wouldn’t work, there wouldn’t be electricity, tractors wouldn’t be able to collect crops, homes wouldn’t be heated, and nothing that is made of plastic would be made. Clearly, oil is the most important resource we have, and that’s why Alberta’s oil has a huge impact on Canada. The oil from Alberta is making an average 3.2% increase each year to the Canadian GDP. Oil is a very important resource in Canada and the world. The only problem is, we’re running out of oil.Eastern CanadaFishing is very popular in a particular part of a Canada. In Eastern Canada there is huge amount of fish in the Grand Banks where many people go fishing. Fishing in Canada began when early settlers from Europe came and started fishing. They realized how many fish there were and built a settlement nearby for easy access to fish. More than 80% of Canada’s fish are exported to other countries. This helped the economy in the beginning by adding an additional 44 billion dollars. Most people fish in the Grand Banks as there are many fish, shallow water, and many nutrients which helps for healthy fish. Recently they had to make policies regarding the fishing because people were overfishing and changes in natural conditions. Overall, fishing now, is adding 1 billion dollars yearly to the economy. This is how the eastern fishing industry helps Canada.Southern CanadaMining is a major industry that makes Canada’s economy. Mining in Ontario is very major. From mining, we get nickel, gold, copper, and zinc. The areas in which we mine, take up about 500 km2. From these minerals we find, we get about 10.8 billion dollars annually from exporting the minerals to other countries. About 60% of the materials we find are sent off to other countries for a lot of money. Right now, mining is adding 6.8 billion dollars to the economy each year. This is how mining happens in Ontario and why it’s important to Canada.Question 4: National/Global ProblemsNorthern CanadaClimate change is affecting the entire world, especially Northern Canada. The ice in the North is melting at an alarming rate. The ice melting has many different side effects such as global temperatures increasing and affecting ocean circulation. 75% of greenhouse gases are from transportation and cars so, representatives of Canada said that cars will be reducing emissions and finding an alternative to industrial greenhouse gases. This means less greenhouse gases which results in the climate slowly steadying. Canada is also making companies invest more in creating Green technologies which will help with greenhouse gases. Overall this will help climate change and slowly stop the ice in the north from melting.Southern CanadaDeforestation is a huge problem Canada. Some major effects from deforestation include loss of animal habitats, climate change, desertification, soil erosion, and flooding. All of these can change the land drastically. Deforestation affects the water cycle. It stops the moisture from returning to the atmosphere. So without the trees, none of the moisture goes back to the atmosphere. The main reason deforestation happens, is because of farming. They need to clear out land for crops. Another loss from deforestation is that many animals lose their habitat. Many species live in the trees and now won’t have anywhere to live. We can help stop the effects of deforestation by planting more trees, going paperless, and eat vegetarian meals as often as possible. Going paperless can help a lot. 38% of Ontario’s wood is used for paper. We can save a lot of trees if people try. In southern Canada they are re planting trees where they are being cut. This will keep the amount of trees stable. In some areas they are planting two trees for every tree cut down so that they increase tree population. They are also promoting natural stuff more often in advertisements. This is how Canada is trying to fix deforestation in southern Canada.Central CanadaIn Central Canada, there is a lot of pollution. This is because of the Alberta oil sands. There is a chemical called PM2.5 that can cause asthma attacks, hospitalization, and can cause death. Central Canada is on track to have the absolute worst air quality in all of Canada. Other chemicals can also get into your lungs which can cause lung cancer. Some environmental effects of air pollution include acidification of plants, crops not growing, and trees dying. Canada is trying to fix the air pollution problem by conserving energy to stop the production of the smoke from factories. This will slow down the amounts of smoke going into the air. Canada also created programs to help slow down the air pollution. They are planting more gardens to produce fresh crops. The food that will be grown won’t be harvested with any machines that emit dangerous chemicals in the air. This is how Canada is trying to fix air pollution in the south.Question 5: demographic characteristicsNorthern CanadaIn Northern Canada there is mostly Inuits. At the time when they came, all the southern land was taken by other Indians, so they settles in the north of Canada. The Inuit have been living there for thousands of years, which is why they are still, there today. They’ve adapted to the cold weather and have gotten used to their lifestyle. The Inuit diet consists of fish and hunted arctic animals. The main reason the Inuit are still in northern Canada, is because they are used to their lifestyle and the northern weather.Eastern CanadaMost common people in eastern Canada are the French. In Quebec they are all speaking French. The reasons for so many French speaking people are in Quebec is because the French first settled there in the St. Lawrence river. The person who came first was Samuel de Champlain. The area they settled in was originally called New France. The reason Quebec is the only French speaking part of Canada, is because of the seven year war. The British beat the French and made a treaty. The British gave the freedom in Quebec and this is also why we learn French in schools. This is why Quebec is full of French population.Western CanadaThe most common native group in western Canada is Cree. For thousands of years the Cree were spread over the forests. They would eat both animals and plants. They would also canoe in the rivers to obtain fish. Cree people today are still hunting as they feel it is a part of who they are. They are still allowed to do cultural practices like rituals. There are approximately 200,000 Cree in Canada.western Canada is taken up by mountains which limits space. The majority of the Cree people live along Alberta.Question 6: Urban GrowthEastern CanadaIn eastern Canada there are many different types of cities and rural areas. One city that I will focus on is Montreal in Quebec. Montreal’s population is continuing to rise of population. Most people are coming from French speaking countries and moving to Montreal. This is because Quebec is the only French speaking area in Canada. Recently Montreal began preparing for a huge spike in urban growth. They are expecting 50,000 new residents by 2030. Montreal is creating more jobs which is why they expect this spike. This is the recent urban growth for Montreal.Western CanadaIn western Canada there is one main city everyone looks at. Which is Vancouver in British Columbia. Vancouver’s population isn’t growing as fast as others. But, the population is still growing. Right now, there are around 650,000 residents in Vancouver. More new houses are being built in downtown Vancouver. This is for the new residents in the coming years. The majority of Vancouver is urban and not many rural areas are available. Vancouver is rebuilding many old buildings. This is the urban growth of Vancouver recently.Central CanadaIn central Canada there is one main city. The city is Calgary which is in Alberta. Calgary’s population is rising at a fast, steady pace. Most of Calgary is already urban, and there is a small amount that is still rural. Calgary isn’t allowing much urban growth. Their population is. 1.2 million. The density is also 1329/km2. From 2006-2011 they experienced a ten percent increase in population. Calgary is trying to remove most rural areas and turning it into an urban area. This will attract more residents. They are creating more jobs to get more people into the city later in the years. This is Calgary’s urban growth.

David Americans in the 1900’s were sadly not

David RodriguezMr. MislanUS History 16 November 2017How does a changing economy impact  the rest of America?A changing economy can impact America in big ways and quite possibly destroy a whole country and the people within. Since Americans in the 1900’s were sadly not informed about how largely their life can change because of the economy. If the money from the Americans taxes were used properly, America at the time would have been a lot more successful and less people would have suffered. A failing economy would negatively affect the rest of America and the government would lose all its power without money, it will especially affect the people as well.Party bosses were becoming wealthy off of the suffering of others. The taxes the American citizens were paying were being stolen by party bosses. The party bosses were stealing votes so they can stay in power and continue to receive more money, one of the many ways they were doing this is by giving citizens of the lower class food or money that would last them a few weeks and since most of the time they were immigrants they thought they were getting free food and money for just signing a piece of paper with their name on it. Little did they know that was one of the main reasons they were in poverty. Immigrants were put in horrible conditions for example in one room they tried to fit 6 people with all of their belongings in a extremely cramped space, some rooms didn’t have windows where they kept a furnace that released a lot of smoke that affected the people in the rooms health negatively, it even showed children hungry and alone in the streets with no shoes(Riis).The railroads were one of the many ways for big businesses to get money, they were buying railroads so they can charge people ridiculous amounts. This tactic was used to knock out small business owners out of the competition. This gave big businesses the chance to charge even more for their products since no other business were selling them in that area, the businesses controlling the railroads practically controlled the economy. (Joseph Keppler) Three men which were named William Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, and Cyrus W. Fields. Vanderbilt were known as the railroad “Giants” and were railroad big shots. These men had trusts with the Union Pacific, New York Central, and Lake Shore & Dependence Lines. They had complete control over the pricing of the railroads and all railroad operations, because of this the government had little power over them and the railroads. But since the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 their power over the railroads dwindled, people were finally pay a decent amount to get to place to place and small business companies were able to transport their goods.  When Teddy Roosevelt became president he had a plan called the Square Deal which included conservation of land, food and drug safety, trust busting, labor strikes, african-american Civil Rights, and railroad regulation (Sidney Milkis). Teddy Roosevelt did this so he can assist the people and improve the economy for America. Teddy Roosevelt wanted to improve the economy so people wouldn’t have to suffer and limit the power of big businesses so the government can start breaking down these businesses so they can regain control. (Clifford Kennedy Berryman) Teddy Roosevelt was dominating those that were breaking antitrust laws which helped citizens of america by a lot. Teddy Roosevelt was trying to restrain big businesses so it can help society and give the government more power over businesses. War affected America’s economy in drastic ways while America was supporting the military, the citizens of America were still trying to survive even with all of the laws that were set in place to help the common citizens of America for example Teddy’s square deal and Wilson’s foreign policy. But since most of the money was used to support the military there wasn’t much left for the citizens of America, for example America spent approximately 32 billion dollars in World War I (Carlos Lozada). Even with the promise of president Wilson “He Kept Us Out of War” if only president Wilson kept his promise to the people when he was running, it would have prevented many issues that were going to block America’s path to greatness. The great depression was the worst time for America. Since president Herbert Hoover had the belief that all Americans should be able to support themselves without any assistance, this way of thinking is called rugged individualism. Hoover stayed passive during the great depression and didn’t give the people a helping hand like a president should have. In result of this over thirty-two million Americans lost their jobs(Thomas DeGrace) and couldn’t support their families, incomes were reduced by forty percent. Thankfully churches and restaurants were holding bread lines to hand out food to those that were poor and hungry(Ralph Fuller). But even with the churches and the restaurants handing out scraps people were still hanging on by a thread. Seven million Americans died during the great depression some Americans even committed suicide to end their suffering.In conclusion a failing economy would negatively affect the rest of America and the government would lose all its power without money, it would especially affect the people. A person can go from living in the upperclassmen life to barely getting enough food for themselves let alone their family’s.

Assignment of Biotechnology (BCH-724) Area of Research: Baking

Assignment Title:



Submitted By:   Ali Asad Yousaf (04-arid-35) Ph.D (Food Technology) 1st

Submitted To:   Dr. Tayyaba Zainab

Course Title:
     Fundamentals of Biotechnology (BCH-724)

Area of
Research:            Baking Science, Role of Enzymes (Amylases) along
with Baker’s                                          Yeast


            Industrial production of
different enzymes and yeast which are considered as essential ingredient for
many food industries are being isolated and produced through biotechnology. Recent
developments in the area of biotechnology have made possible for food
technologists to utilize modified enzymes that would available for processed-food
industry such as baking, brewing, fruit juices and starch syrups.1, 2
In baking industry, the role of enzymes especially Amylases cannot be denied
due to their anit-stailing and smooth dough handling attributes. These are also
essential for attaining proper crumb texture, color, taste, moisture and
volume.3, 4, 5, 9

            Amylases hydrolyses the internal ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages of starch molecule to
convert it in its lower molecular weight derivatives like  glucose, maltose and maltotrioses.5, 7, 8
Amylases are also considerably vital as they have almost 25% share in the world
enzyme market that produce commercially through biotechnological means.8 Although
amylases can be acquired from multiple sources, such as plants, animals and
microorganisms but due to the advancements in food biotechnology, the microbial
amylases have almost swapped the others. In baking industry, now a days, starch
hydrolysis is done through these enzymes instead of chemical means.9

            A lot of enzymes are now produced on commercial bases by Genetically
Modified Organisms with the goal to attain higher production yields and
obviously of reduced costs.10 Thermo-stable maltogenic amylases
obtained from genetically engineered bacterial specie Bacillus stearothermophilus
are used commercially in bakery industry. 9 It is worth
mentioning here that these modified microbial amylases are more stable and have
broad spectrum of industrial applications than that of produced by chemical
means through plant and animal sources. 11

            In addition to
amylases, yeast is also another vital ingredient which is genetically modified
to improve and to maintain bread quality. The modification is desired Baker’s
Yeast to enhance its ability for dough leavening, its stability to tolerate
higher temperatures and varying pH ranges.10 In 1990, Gist-Brocades
(Delft, The Netherlands)12 developed the first genetically
modified baker’s yeast that was produced through self-cloned organism in which a
gene and promoter were transferred from a closely related yeast isolated into
another yeast strain. 13, 14

Literature Cited:

Couto, S. R and M. A. Sanromán. 2006. Application of
solid-state fermentation to food industry: A   review. J. Food Engr. 76: 291-302.


Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel, B. van der Veen, J. C. M.
Uitdehaag, H. Leemhuis, L. Dijkhuizen. 2002. Review article: Properties and applications of
starch-converting enzymes of the ?-amylase          family. J. Biotechnol. 94: 137-155.


De Stefanis, V.A and E.W Turner. 1981. Modified enzyme system
to inhibit bread firming method    for
          preparing same and use of
same in bread and other bakery products. Patent application                US4299848.


Sahlstro, S and E. Brathen. 1997. Effects of enzyme
preparations for baking, mixing time    and
resting time   on bread quality and
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Gupta, R., P. Gigras, H. Mohapatra, V. K. Goswami, B. Chauhan.
2003. Microbial ?-amylases: A            biotechnological
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Kandra, L. 2003. ?-Amylases of medical and industrial
importance. J. Mol. Struc. (Theochem).  666–667,       487–498.


Rajagopalan, G. and C. Krishnan. 2008. Alpha-amylase
production from catabolite depressed Bacillus             subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse
hydrolysate. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 3044-3050.


Reddy, N.S., A. Nimmagadda, K. R. S. Rao. 2003. An overview
of the microbial ?-amylase family. Afr. J.             Biotechnol. 2: 645-648.


De Souza, P. M and M. Pérola de Oliveira. 2010. Application of
Microbial ?-amylase in Industry: A   Review.
Braz. J. Microbiol. 41: 850-861


Linko, Y. Y., P. Javanainen, S. Linko. 1997. Biotechnology of
bread baking. Trends Food Sci.
 Technol. 81:        39-44.


Tanyildizi, M. S., D. Ozer, M. Elibol. 2005. Optimization of ?-amylase
production by Bacillus sp. using                response
surface methodology. Process. Biochem. 40: 2291–    2296.


Osinga, K. A., R. F Beudeker, J. B. Van der Plat, J. A. De
Hollander. 1989. Recombinant Yeast for More             Efficient Sugar Fermentation. Euro. P. 306-107.


Lloyd-Evans, L.P.M. 1994. Biotechnology-derived Foods and the
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