they are now initial to joint technically. Examples of specific software cost assessing tools include Before You Leap, SPOT CHECK, Constructive Cost Model (cocomo) 2, Cost X pert, Facts Plan, Parametric Review of Information for Costing and Evaluation â?? Software (PRICE-S), Software Evaluation and Estimation of Resources â?? Software Estimating Model (SEER-SEM), and Software Life Cycle Management (SLIM). Project management tools are an automated form of several techniques developed by the Navy for controlling large and complex weapons systems. For example, the program evaluation and review technique(PERT) originated in the 1950s for handling complex military projects such as building warships. Other capabilities of project management tools include critical path analysis, resource leveling ,and production of Gantt or timeline charts. There are many commercial project management tools available such as Artemis Views, Microsoft Project, Primavera, Project Managerâ??s Work bench ,and more. Project management tools did not originate for software ,but rather for handling very complex scheduling situations where hundreds or even thousands of tasks need to be determined and sequenced ,and where dependencies such as the completion ofa task might affect the start of subsequent tasks. Project management tools have nob uilt-in expertise regarding software as do the commercial software cost estimating tools. For example, if you wish to explore the quality and cost impact of an object-oriented programming language such as Small talk, a standard project management tool is not the right choice. By contrast, many software cost estimating tools have built-in tables of programming languages and will automatically adjust the estimate based on which language is selected for the application. Since software cost estimating tools originated about 10 years after commercial project management tools, the developers of software cost estimating tools seldom tried to replicate project management functions such as construction of detailed PERT diagrams or critical path analysis. Instead, the cost estimation tools would export data to a project management tool. Thus, interfaces between software cost estimating tools and project management tools are now standard features in the commercial estimation market. Let us now turn to applying project planning and project estimating tools to large software applications.